Listed here are a variety of scientific papers that relate to the study of pelagic tunicates. These papers are published in scientific journals that are not available in public libraries – you will need access to a university library or online sources. Note that references with author names in color are links to abstracts (summaries) provided by several publishing companies that produce scientific journals. In most cases, the full journal papers are available online by paid subscription (check the home page of each publishing company for details).
To search for online literature, use the new Google tool below (About Google Scholar). Use any information available – author, topic, title, words that appear in title, etc. If you see a reference below that strikes your fancy, use that information for the search. Make your query as specific as possible to limit the number of search results. If you’re lucky, you’ll come up with a link to the complete research paper, or at least an abstract. This is a new service so don’t expect everything to be online, but with time it should improve.
Alldredge, A.L. 1972. Abandoned larvacean houses, a unique food source in the pelagic environment. Science, 177:885-887.
______. 1976. Field behavior and adaptive strategies of appendicularians (Chordata: Tunicata). Marine Biology, 38:29-39.
______. 1981. The impact of appendicularian grazing on natural concentrations in situ. Limnology and Oceanography, 26:247-257.
Alldredge, A. and L.P. Madin. 1982. Pelagic tunicates: unique herbivores in the marine plankton. Bioscience, 32:655-663.
Barham, E.G. 1979. Giant larvacean houses: observations from deep submersibles. Science, 205:1129-1131.
Berner, L.D. 1967. Distributional Atlas of Thaliacea in the California Current Region. CALCOFI Atlas No.8 (California Marine Research Committee), 322 pp.
Blackburn, M. 1979. Thaliacea of the California current region : relations to temperature, chlorophyll, currents, and upwelling. CALCOFI Reports No. 20, pp. 184-214.
Bone, Q. 1997. Biology of Pelagic Tunicates. Oxford University Press, New York.
Bone, Q. and E.R. Trueman. 1983. Jet propulsion in salps (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Journal of Zoology, London, 201:481-506.
______. 1984. Jet propulsion in Doliolum (Tunicata: Thaliacea). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 76:105-118.
Bone, Q., et al. 1980. The communication between individuals in salp chains. I. Morphology of the system. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 210:549-558.
Brattström, H. 1972. On Salpa fusiformis CUVIER (Thaliacea) in Norwegian coastal and offshore waters. Sarsia, 48:71-90.
Brena, C., F. Cima, and P. Burighel. 2003. The highly specialised gut of Fritillariidae (Appendicularia: Tunicata). Marine Biology, 143(1):57-71.
Broms, F. and P. Tiselius. 2003. Effects of temperature and body size on the clearance rate of Oikopleura dioica. Journal of Plankton Research, 25(5):573-577.
Cetta, C.M., L.P. Madin and P. Kremer. 1986. Respiration and excretion by oceanic salps. Marine Biology, 91:529-537.
Cima, F., C. Brena, and P. Burighel. 2002. Multifarious activities of gut epithelium in an appendicularian (Oikopleura dioica: Tunicata). Marine Biology, 141(3):479-490.
Compere, P. and J.E.A. Godeaux. 1997. On endostyle ultrastructure in two new species of doliolid-like tunicates. Marine Biology, 128(3):447-453.
Esnal, G.B., O.M. Eldan and A.M. Retamal. 1998. New data about Helicosalpa younti Kashkina 1973
(Tunicata: Thaliacea), a very rare salpid species. Bulletin of Marine Science, 62(1):73-79.
Fenaux, R. 1993. The classification of Appendicularia (Tunicata): history and current state. Mémoires de l’Institut Océanographique. Monaco, 17, vii-123.
Flood, P.R. 1991. Architecture of, and water circulation and flow rate in, the house of the planktonic tunicate Oikopleura labradoriensis. Marine Biology, 111:95-111.
_____. 2003. House formation and feeding behaviour of Fritillaria borealis (Appendicularia: Tunicata).
Marine Biology, 143(3):467-475.
Flood, P.R., D. Deibel and C.C. Morris. 1990. Visualization of the transparent, gelatinous house of the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura vanhoeffeni using Sepia ink. Biological Bulletin, 178:118-125.
Fraser, J.H. 1982. British Pelagic Tunicates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 57 pp.
Galt, C.P., M.S. Grober and P.F. Sykes. 1985. Taxonomic correlates of bioluminescence among appendicularians (Urochordata: Larvacea). Biological Bulletin, 168:125-134.
Gibson, D. M. and G. A. Paffenhöfer. 2000. Feeding and growth rates of the doliolid, Dolioletta gegenbauri
Uljanin (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Journal of Plankton Research, 22:1485–1500.
Hamner, W.M.and B.H. Robison. 1992. In situ observations of giant appendicularians in Monterey Bay. Deep-sea Research, Part A, 39:1299-1313.
Harbison, G.R. and R.W. Gilmer. 1976. The feeding rates of the pelagic tunicate Pegea confederata and two other salps. Limnology and Oceanography, 21:517-528.
Harbison, G.R. and V.L. McAlister. 1979. The filter-feeding rates and particle retention efficiencies of three species of Cyclosalpa (Tunicata: Thaliacea). Limnology and Oceanography, 24:875-892
Harbison, G.R. and R.B. Campenot. 1979. Effects of temperature on the swimming of salps (Tunicata, Thaliacea): implications for vertical migration. Limnology and Oceanography, 24:1081-1091.
Heron, A. C. 1972. Population ecology of a colonizing species: the pelagic tunicate Thalia democratica. I.
Individual growth rate and generation time. Oecologia, 10:269–293.
_____. and E.E. Benham. 1985. Life history parameters as indicators of growth rate in three salp populations. Journal of Plankton Research, 7:365-379.
Hirose, E., S. Kimura, T. Itoh, and J. Nishikawa. 1999. Tunic morphology and cellulosic components of pyrosomas, doliolids, and salps (Thaliacea, Urochordata). Biological Bulletin, 196:113-120.
Hubbard, L.T. Jr. and W.G. Pearcy. 1971. Geographic distribution and relative abundance of Salpidae off the Oregon coast. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 28:1831-1836.
Kawaguchi, S. and Y. Takahashi. 1996. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) eat salps. Polar Biology, 16(7):479-481.
Kremer, P. and L.P. Madin. 1992. Particle retention efficiency of salps. Journal of Plankton Research, 4:1009-1015.
Loeb, V., et al. 1997. Effects of sea-ice extent and krill or salp dominance on the Antarctic food web.
Mackie, G.O. and Q. Bone. 1978. Luminescence and associated effector activity in Pyrosoma (Tunicata: Pyrosomida). Proceedings of the Royal Society (Series B), 202:483-495.
Madin, L.P. 1974. Field observations on the feeding behavior of salps (Tunicata: Thaliacea). Marine Biology, 25:143-147.
______. 1990. Aspects of the jet propulsion in salps. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68:765-777.
______ and G.R. Harbison. 1977. The association of Hyperiidea with gelatinous zooplankton – I. Associations with Salpidae. Deep-Sea Research, 24:449-463.
______ and G.R. Harbison. 1978. Salps of the genus Pegea Savigny 1816 (Tunicata: Thaliacea). Bulletin of Marine Science, 28: 335-344.
______, J.E. Purcell and C.B. Miller. 1997. Abundance and grazing effects of Cyclosalpa bakeri in the
Subarctic Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 157:175-183.
Metcalf, M. M. 1918. The Salpidae: a taxonomic study. United States National Museum, Bulletin, 100, 2(Part 2): 3-193.
Miller, R.L. and J. Cosson. 1997. Timing of sperm shedding and release of aggregates in the salp Thalia
democratica (Urochordata: Thaliacea). Marine Biology, 129(4):607-614.
Nishino, A., Y. Satou, M. Morisawa and N. Satoh. 2000. Muscle actin genes and muscle cells in the appendicularian, Oikopleura longicauda: Phylogenetic relationships among muscle tissues in the urochordates. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 288(2):135-150.
A. Nishino and N. Satoh. 2001. The simple tail of chordates: Phylogenetic significance of appendicularians. Genesis, 29(1): 36-45.
Paffenhöfer, G.A. 1973. The cultivation of an appendicularian through numerous generations. Marine Biology, 22:183–185.
Perissinotto, R. and E.A. Pakhomov. 1997. Feeding association of the copepod Rhincalanus gigas with the tunicate salp Salpa thompsoni in the southern ocean. Marine biology, 127(3):479-483.
Perissinotto, R. and E.A. Pakhomov. 1998. Contribution of salps to carbon flux of marginal ice zone of the Lazarev Sea, southern ocean. Marine Biology, 131(1):25-32.
Phleger, C.F., M. M. Nelson, B. Mooney and P. D. Nichols. 2000. Lipids of Antarctic salps and their commensal hyperiid amphipods. Polar Biology, 23(5):329-337.
Pomeroy, L.R. and D. Deibel. 1980. Aggregation of organic matter by pelagic tunicates. Limnology and Oceanography, 25:643-652.
Purcell, J.E. and L.P. Madin. 1991. Diel patterns of migration, feeding, and spawining by salps in the subarctic Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 73:211-217.
Raghukumar, S. and C. Raghukumar. 1999. Thraustochytrid fungoid protists in faecal pellets of the tunicate Pegea confoederata, their tolerance to deep-sea conditions and implication in degradation processes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 190:133-140.
Ritter, W.E. 1905. The pelagic Tunicata of the San Diego region, excepting the Larvacea. University of California Publications in Zoology, 2:51-112.
Sato, R., J. Yu, Y. Tanaka, and T. Ishimaru. 1999. New apparatuses for cultivation of appendicularians. Plankton Biol. Ecol., 46:162–164.
Sato, R., Y. Tanaka, and T. Ishimaru. 2001. House production by Oikopleura dioica (Tunicata, Appendicularia) under laboratory conditions. Journal of Plankton Research, 23:415–423.
Selander, E. and P. Tiselius. 2003. Effects of food concentration on the behaviour of Oikopleura dioica. Marine Biology, 142(2):263-270.
Sempére, R., et al. 2000. Microbial decomposition of large organic particles in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: an experimental approach. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 198:61-72.
Silver, M.W. 1975. The habitat of Salpa fusiformis in the California Current as defined by indicator assemblages. Limnology and Oceanography, 20:230-237.
van Soest, R.W.M. 1974. Taxonomy of the subfamily Cyclosalpinae Yount, 1954 (Tunicata, Thaliacea), with descriptions of two new species. Beaufortia, 22:17-55.
______. 1974. A revision of the genera Salpa Forskal, 1775, Pegea Savigny, 1816, and Ritteriella Metcalf, 1919 (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Beaufortia, 22:153-191.
______. 1975. Zoogeography and speciation in the Salpidae (Tunicata: Thaliacea). Beaufortia, 23: 181-215.
______. 1981. A monograph of the order Pyrosomatida (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Journal of Plankton Research, 3:603-631.
Tiselius, P., J. Petersen, T. Nielsen, M. Maar, E. Møller, S. Satapoomin, K. Tönnesson, T. Zervoudaki, E. Christou, A. Giannakourou, A. Sell, and C. Vargas. 2003. Functional response of Oikopleura dioica to house clogging due to exposure to algae of different sizes. Marine Biology, 142(2):253-261.
Tokioka, T. 1960. Studies on the distribution of appendicularians and some thaliaceans of the north Pacific, with some morphological notes. Publications of the. Seto Marine Biology Lab., 8:351-443.
Tokioka, T. and L. Berner. 1958. On certain Thaliacea (Tunicata) from the Pacific Ocean, with descriptions of two new species of doliolids. Pacific Science, 12, 317-326.
Yount, J. L. 1954. The taxonomy of the Salpidae (Tunicata) of the Central Pacific Ocean. Pacific Science, 8:276-330.
______. 1958. Distribution and ecologic aspects of Central Pacific Salpidae (Tunicata). Pacific Science, 12:111-130.
Zeldis, J.R., et.al. 1995. Salp grazing: effects on phytoplankton abundance, vertical distribution and taxonomic composition in a coastal habitat. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 126:267-283.