General References

Listed here are a variety of scientific papers that relate to the study of gelatinous zooplankton. These papers are published in scientific journals that are not available in public libraries – you will need access to a university library or online sources. Note that references with author names in color are links to abstracts (summaries) provided by several publishing companies that produce scientific journals. In most cases, the full journal papers are available online by paid subscription (check the home page of each publishing company for details).

To search for online literature, use the new Google tool below (About Google Scholar). Use any information available – author, topic, title, words that appear in title, etc. If you see a reference below that strikes your fancy, use that information for the search. Make your query as specific as possible to limit the number of search results. If you’re lucky, you’ll come up with a link to the complete research paper, or at least an abstract. This is a new service so don’t expect everything to be online, but with time it should improve.

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Alvariño, A. 1967. Bathymetric distribution of Chaetognatha, Siphonophorae, Medusae and Ctenophorae off San Diego, California. Pacific Science, 21:474-485.

Arai, M.N., G.A. McFarlane, M.W. Saunders, and G.M. Mapstone. 1993. Spring abundance of medusae, ctenophores, and siphonophores off southwest Vancouver Island: possible competition or predation on sablefish larvae. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1939:1-37. 

Bailey, T.G., M.J. Youngbluth, and G.P. Owen. 1995. Chemical composition and metabolic rates of gelatinous zooplankton from midwater and benthic boundary layer environments off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 122:121-134.

Baker, A. C. 1963. The problem of keeping planktonic animals alive in the laboratory. Journal of the Marine
Biological Association UK, 43: 291–294.

Bigelow, H.B. 1920. Medusae and ctenophores from the Canadian Arctic Expedition, p. 3-19, pl. 1-2 In Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-18 VIII Mollusks, Echinoderms, Coelenterates, etc. Kings
Printer, Ottawa.

Biggs, D.C. 1977. Respiration and ammonium excretion by open ocean gelatinous zooplankton. Limnology and Oceanography, 22:108-118.

Cairns, S. D., D. R. Calder, A. Brinckmann-Voss, C.B. Castro, D.G. Fautin, P.R. Pugh, C.E. Mills, W.C. Japp, M.N. Arai, S.H.D. Haddock, and D.M Opresko. 1991. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, 2nd edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, 28:1-115, 7 pls.

Childress, J. J. and E. V. Thuesen. 1993. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on metabolic rates of six species of
deep-sea gelatinous zooplankton. Limnology and Oceanography, 38: 665–670.

Dawson, M.N., K.A. Raskoff and D.K. Jacobs. 1998. Field preservation of marine invertebrate tissue for DNA analyses. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 7(2):145-152.

Dunbar, M.J. 1942. Marine macroplankton from the Canadian Eastern Arctic II Medusae, siphonophora, ctenophora, pteropoda, and chaetognatha. Canadian Journal of Research, 20(D): 71-77.

Eiane, K, D.L.Aksnes, E. Bagoeien and S. Kaartvedt.  1999.  Fish or jellies – a question of visibility?  Limnology and Oceanography, 44(5):1352-1357.

Frank, T.M. and E.A. Widder. 1997. The correlation of downwelling irradiance and staggered vertical migration patterns of zooplankton in Wilkinson Basin, Gulf of Maine. Journal of Plankton Research, 19:1975-1991. 

Gilmer, R. W. 1972. Free-floating mucus webs: a novel feeding adaptation for the open ocean. Science, 176:1239–1240.

Gorsky, G.,  P.R. Flood, M.Youngbluth, M.Picheral and J.M. Grisoni. 2000. Zooplankton Distribution in Four Western Norwegian Fjords. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 50(1):129-135.

Graham, W.M., J.G. Field and D.C. Potts. 1992. Persistent “upwelling shadows” and their influence on
zooplankton distributions. Marine Biology, 114: 561-570.

Graham, W.M., F. Pages and W.M. Hamner. 2001. A physical context for gelatinous zooplankton aggregations: a review.  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

Greve, W. 1968. The “planktonkreisel”, a new device for culturing zooplankton. Marine Biology, 1:201–203.

_____. 1975. The “Meteor Planktonküvette”: a device for the maintenance of macrozooplankton aboard
ships. Aquaculture, 6:77–82.

Haddock, S,H.D. 2004. A golden age of gelata: past and future research on planktonic ctenophores and cnidarians. Hydrobiologia, 530-531(1):549-556.

Haddock, S.H.D and J.F. Case. 1999.  Bioluminescence spectra of shallow and deep-sea gelatinous zooplankton: ctenophores, medusae and siphonophores.  Marine Biology, 133(3):571-582.

Hamner, W.M. 1974. Blue-water plankton. National Geographic, 46:530-545.

_____. 1975. Underwater observations of blue-water plankton: logistics, techniques, and safety procedures for divers at sea. Limnology and Oceanography, 13:1045–1051.

_____. 1985. The importance of ethology for investigations of marine zooplankton. Bulletin of Marine Science, 37: 414–424.

______. 1990. Design developments in the planktonkreisel, a plankton aquarium for ships at sea. Journal of Plankton Research, 12:397-402.

Hamner, W.M., L.P. Madin, A.L. Alldredge, R.W. Gilmer and P.P. Hamner 1975. Underwater observations of gelatinous zooplankton: sampling problems, feeding biology, and behavior. Limnology and Oceanography, 20:907-917.

Harbison, G.R. and L.P. Madin. 1979. Diving – a new view of plankton biology. Oceanus, 22:18-27.

Harris, R. P., P. H. Wiebe, J. Lenz, H. R. Skjoldal, and M. Huntley, eds. 2000. ICES Zooplankton Methodology Manual. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Heine, J.N. 1986. Bluewater diving guidelines. California Sea Grant Program Publication No. T-CSGCP-014.

Herring, P.J. 1987. Systematic distribution of bioluminescence in living organisms. Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence, 1:47-163.

Hyman, L.H. 1940. The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 726 pp.

Johnsen, S. 2001. Hidden in plain sight: The ecology and physiology of organismal trasnparency. Biological Bulletin, 201(3):301-318.

Johnsen, S. and E.A. Widder. 1998. Transparency and visibility of gelatinous zooplankton from the
Northwestern Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 195(3):337-348.

_____. 2001. Ultraviolet absorption in transparent zooplankton and its implication for depth distribution and visual predation. Marine Biology, 138:717-730. 

Kideys, A. and Z. Romanova. 2001. Distribution of gelatinous macrozooplankton in the southern Black Sea during 1996-1999. Marine Biology, 139(3):535-547.

Larson, R.J. 1986. Seasonal changes in standing stocks, growth rates, and production rates of gelatinous predators in Saanich Inlet, BC. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 33:89-98.

______. 1987. Daily ration and predation by medusae and ctenophores in Saanich Inlet, Canada. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 21:35-44.

Laval, P. 1980. Hyperiid amphipods as crustacean parasitoids associated with gelatinous zooplankton. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review, 18:11-51.

Mackie, G.O. 1985. Midwater macroplankton of British Columbia studied by submersible PISCES IV. Journal of Plankton Research, 7:753-777.

Martorelli, S.R. 2001. Digenea parasites of jellyfish and ctenophores of the southern Atlantic.
Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

Mills, C.E. 1981. Seasonal occurrence of planktonic medusae and ctenophores in the San Juan Archipelago (NE Pacific). Wasmann Journal of Biology, 39:6-29.

______. 1995. Medusae, siphonophores, and ctenophores as planktivorous predators in changing global ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 52:575-581.

Mills, C.E. and J.T. Carlton, in press. Havens on the high seas: rationale for a system of international reserves for the open ocean. Conservation Biology.

Pagès, F., 2001. Gelatinous zooplankton assemblages associated with water masses in the
Humboldt Current System, and potential predatory impact by Bassia bassensis (Siphonophora: Calycophorae). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 210:13-24.

Pagès, F., M.G. White and P.G. Rodhouse. 1996. Abundance of gelatinous carnivores in the nekton community of the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone in summer 1994. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 141:139-147. 

Pearse, V., J. Pearse, M. Buchsbaum, and R. Buchsbaum. 1987. Living Invertebrates. The Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, CA.

Purcell, J.E. 1997. Pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores as predators: selective predation, feeding rates, and effects on prey populations. Ann. Inst. Oceanogr., 73:125-137. 

Purcell, J. E. and M. N. Arai. 2001. Interactions of pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores with fish: a review.
Hydrobiologia, 451: 27–44.

Purcell, J. E., D. L. Breitburg, M. B. Decker, W. M. Graham, M. J. Youngbluth, and K. A. Raskoff. 2001. Pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores in low dissolved oxygen environments. Pp. 77–100 in Coastal Hypoxia: Consequences for Living Resources and Ecosystems, N. N. Rabalais and R. E. Turner, eds. American
Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Purcell, J.E., W.M. Graham and H.J. Dumont (eds.). 2001. Jellyfish Blooms: Ecological and Societal Importance. Developments in Hydrobiology 155. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: xviii + 334 pp.
Reprinted from Hydrobiologia 451.

Raskoff, K.A., F.A. Sommer, W.M. Hamner and K.M. Cross. 2003. Collection and culture techniques for gelatinous zooplankton. Biological Bulletin, 204: 68-80.

Raymont, J.E.G. 1983. Plankton and Productivity in the Oceans (2nd edition). Volume 2, Zooplankton.  Pergamon Press.  

Reeve, M. R. 1981. Large cod-end reservoirs as an aid to the live collection of delicate zooplankton. Limnology and Oceanography, 26:577–580.

Reid, J.L., G.I. Roden and J.G. Wyllie. 1958. Studies of the California Current system. Contributions from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, New Series, No. 998, pp. 293-323.

Robison, B. H. 1993. Midwater research methods with MBARI’s ROV. Marine Technol. Society Journal, 26:32–39.

Sameoto, D., P. H. Wiebe, J. Runge, L. R. Postel, J. Dunn, C. Miller, and S. Coombs. 2000. Collecting zooplankton. Pp. 55–81 in ICES Zooplankton Methodology Manual, R. P. Harris, P. H. Wiebe, J. Lenz, H. R. Skjoldal, and M. Huntley, eds. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Shiganova, T.A. and Y.V. Bulgakova. 2000. Effects of gelatinous plankton on Black Sea and Sea of Azov fish and their food resources. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57(3):641-648.

Silver, M. W., S. L. Coale, C. H. Pilskaln, and D. R. Steinberg. 1998. Giant aggregates: importance as microbial centers and agents of material flux in the mesopelagic zone. Limnology and Oceanography, 43 498–507.

Stanton, T.K., et al. 1998. Sound scattering by several zooplankton groups. I. Experimental determination of dominant scattering mechanisms. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 103(1):225-235.

Strathmann, M. F. 1987. Reproduction and Development of Marine Invertebrates of the Northern Pacific Coast: Data and Methods for the Study of Eggs, Embryos, and Larvae. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Vereshchaka, a.L. and G.M. Vinogradov. 1999.  Visual observations of the vertical distribution of plankton throughout the water column above Broken Spur vent field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research, (46)9:1615-1632.

Ward, W. W. 1974. Aquarium systems for the maintenance of ctenophore and jellyfish and for hatching and harvesting of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. Chesapeake Science, 15:116–118.

Williams, R.B., P.F.S. Cornelius, R.G. Hughes, and E.A. Robson. (Eds.). 1991. Coelenterate biology: recent research on Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Williamson, J., P. Fenner and J. Burnett. (eds.) 1996. Venomous and Poisonous Marine Animals: a Medical and Biological Handbook. NSW University Press, Sidney Australia, 504 pp.

Wrobel, D. and C.E. Mills. 1998. Pacific coast pelagic invertebrates: a guide to the common gelatinous animals. Sea Challengers and the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California. 

Youngbluth, M. J. 1984. Water column ecology: in situ observations of marine zooplankton from a manned
submersible. Pp. 45–57 in Divers, Submersibles and Marine Science, N. C. Fleming, ed. Memorial University of Newfoundland, Occasional Papers in Biology, Vol. 9.

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