Cnidarian References

Listed here are a variety of scientific papers that relate to the study of cnidarian jellies. These papers are published in scientific journals that are not available in public libraries – you will need access to a university library or online sources. Note that references with author names in color are links to abstracts (summaries) provided by several publishing companies that produce scientific journals. In most cases, the full journal papers are available online by paid subscription (check the home page of each publishing company for details).

To search for online literature, use the new Google tool below (About Google Scholar). Use any information available – author, topic, title, words that appear in title, etc. If you see a reference below that strikes your fancy, use that information for the search. Make your query as specific as possible to limit the number of search results. If you’re lucky, you’ll come up with a link to the complete research paper, or at least an abstract. This is a new service so don’t expect everything to be online, but with time it should improve.

Google Scholar

Abe, Y. and M. Hisada. 1969. On a new rearing method of common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita. Bulletin Marine Biol. Stn. Asamushi, 13: 205–209.

Acker, T.S. 1976. Craspedacusta sowerbyi: an analysis of an introduced species. Pages 219-226 in G.O.
Mackie, editor. Coelenterate ecology and behavior. Plenum Press, New York. 

Acuña, J. L., D. Deibel, and S. Sooley. 1994. A simple device to transfer large and delicate planktonic organisms. Limnology and Oceanography, 39: 2001–2003.

Afzelius, B.A. and A. Franzen. 1971. The spermatozoon of the jellyfish Nausithoe. Journal of Ultrastructure
Research, 37: 186-199.

Agassiz, A., 1883. Exploration of the surface fauna of the Gulf Stream. III. Part 1. The Porpitidae and Velellidae. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 8: 16 pp. + 12 plates.

Alvariño, A. 1971. Siphonophores of the Pacific, with a review of the world distribution. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 16:1-432.

Anderson, P.A.V.  1977.  Electrically coupled, photosensitive neurons control swimming in a jellyfish.  Science, 197: 186-188.

Arai, M. N. 1988. Interactions of fish and pelagic coelenterates. Canadian Journal of Zoology,  66: 1913-1927.

_____. 1991. Attraction of Aurelia and Aequorea to prey. Hydrobiologia, 216–217: 363–366.

_____. 1997. A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa. Chapman and Hall, London, 316 pp.

2001. Pelagic cnidarians and eutrophication: a review.  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

Arai, M.N. and A. Brinckman-Voss. 1980. Hydromedusae of British Columbia and Puget Sound. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 204, 192 pp.

_____. 1983. A new species of Amphinema: Amphinema platyhedos n. sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Pandeidae) from the Canadian West Coast. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 61:2179-2182.

Arai, M.N., M.J. Cavey, and B.A. Moore. 2000. Morphology and distribution of a deep-water Narcomedusa (Solmarisidae) from the north-east Pacific. Scientia Marina, supplement 1:55-62. 

Arkett, S.A. and A.N. Spencer. 1986. Neuronal mechanisms of a hydromedusan shadow reflex.  I. Identified reflex components and sequence of events. Journal of Comparative Physiology,  159: 201-213.

Arkhipkin, A. and V. Bizikov. 1996. Possible imitation of jellyfish by the squid paralarvae of the family Gonatidae (Cephalopoda, Oegopsida). Polar Biology, 16(7):531-534.

Aerne, B.L. 1996. The hydrozoan life cycle: a small secreted protein is involved in specification of the polyp stage. Development, Genes and Evolution, 206(5):337-343.

Avian, M. 1986. Temperature influence on in vitro reproduction and development of Pelagia noctiluca (Forskal). Bollettino di Zoologia, 53: 385-391.

_____., L. Rottini Sandrini and F. Stravisi. 1991. The effect of seawater temperature on the swimming activity of Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskal). Bollettino di Zoologia, 58(2): 135-142.

Båmstedt, U.,  M.B. Martinussen  and S. Matsakis. 1994. Trophodynamics of the two scyphozoan jellyfishes, Aurelia aurita and Cyanea capillata, in western Norway. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 51(4):369-382.

Båmstedt, U., H. Ishii and M. B. Martinussen. 1997. Is the scyphomedusa Cyanea capillata (L.) dependent on gelatinous prey for its early development? Sarsia, 82:269-273.

Båmstedt, U., J. H. Fosså, M. B. Martinussen and A. Fosshagen. 1998. Mass occurrence
of the physonect siphonophore Apolemia uvaria (LESUEUR) in Norwegian waters. Sarsia:83:79-85. 

Bamstedt, U.,  J. Lane and M.B. Martinussen 1999.  Bioenergetics of ephyra larvae of the scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to temperature and salinity.  Marine Biology, 135(1):89-98.

Båmstedt, U., B. Wild, and M. Martinussen. 2001. Significance of food type for growth of ephyrae Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa). Marine Biology, 139(4):641-650.

Båmstedt, U., S. Kaartvedt, and M. Youngbluth. 2003. An evaluation of acoustic and video methods to estimate the abundance and vertical distribution of jellyfish. Journal of Plankton Research, 25(11): 1307-1318.

Bieri, R.1959. Dimorphism and size distribution in Velella and Physalia. Nature, London, 184: 1333-1334.

_____. 1977. A morphometric study of Velella (Hydrozoa) from different oceans.  Publications Seto Marine Biological Lab., 24: 59-62.

Bigelow, H.B. 1911. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer “Albatross” 1904-1905. XXII. The siphonophorae. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, 38:171-401, 32 pls.

______ 1912. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer “Albatross” 1904-1905. XXVI. The ctenophores. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, 54:369-404, 2 pls.

Bischoff, A., J. Fleck, and D.K. Hofmann. 1991. Phorbol esters induce metamorphosis in
Cassiopea andromeda
and Cassiopea xamachana (Cnidaria:Scyphozoa). Proceedings of the German Zoological Society, 84:484.

Blanquet, R.S. 1972. Temperature acclimation in the medusa, Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 43B:717-723.


Bloom, D.A., J.W.  Burnett and P. Alderslade. 1998.  Partial purification of box jellyfish (Chironex
) nematocyst venom isolated at the beachside. Toxicon, 36(8):1075-1085.

Boero, F. and J. Bouillon. 1989. The life cycles of Octotiara russelli and Stomotoca atra (Cnidaria,
Anthomedusae, Pandeidae). Zoologica Scripta, 18(1):1-7.

Boothroyd, I.K.G., M.K. Etheredge, and J.D. Green. 2002. Spatial distribution, size structure, and prey of Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester in a shallow New Zealand lake . Hydrobiologia, 468(1-3):23-32.

Bouillon, J. 1999. Hydromedusae. Pages 385-465 in D. Boltovsky, editor. South Atlantic zooplankton. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. 

Bouillon, J., F. Boero, F. Cicogna, J.M. Gili and R.G. Hughes. 1992. Non-siphonophoran Hydrozoa: what are we talking about? Scientia Marina, 56:279-284.

Bouillon, J. and T.J. Barnett. 1999. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Hydromedusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 113:1-136.

Brewer, R. H. 1976. Larval settling behavior in Cyanea capillata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Biological Bulletin, 150: 183–199.

_____. 1978. Larval settlement behavior in the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) (Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae). Estuaries, 1: 120–122.

_____. 1984. The influence of the orientation, roughness, and wettability of solid surfaces on the behavior and attachment of planulae of Cyanea (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Biological Bulletin, 166: 11–21.

_____. 1989. The annual pattern of feeding, growth, and sexual reproduction in Cyanea in the Niantic River estuary, Connecticut.  Biological Bulletin, 176: 272-281.

_____ and J. S. Feingold. 1991. The effect of temperature on the benthic stages of Cyanea (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa), and their seasonal distribution in the Niantic River estuary, Connecticut. Journal Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 152: 49–60.

Bieri, R., 1959. Dimorphism and size distribution in Velella and Physalia. Nature, London 184: 1333-1334.

_____. 1970. The food of Porpita and niche separation in three neuston coelenterates. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 17: 305-307.

_____. 1977a. A morphometric study of Velella (Hydrozoa) from different oceans. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 24: 59-62.

_____. 1977b. The ecological significance of seasonal occurrence and growth rate of Velella (Hydrozoa). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 24: 63-76.

Bigelow, H. B., 1911c. The Siphonophorae. Reports of the scientific research expedition to the tropical Pacific. Albatross XXIII. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. 38: 173-401, 132 pls.

Brinckmann, A., 1964b. Observations on the structure and development of the medusa of Velella velella (Linne 1758). Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk naturhistorisk Forening bd. 126: 327-336.

Brierley, A.S., 2001. Acoustic observations of jellyfish in the Namibian Benguela. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 210:55-66.

Brinkmann-Voss, A. 1970. Anthomedusae/Athecata (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) of the Mediterranean. Part I. Capitata. Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 39: 1–96.

 _____ 1985. Hydroids and medusae of Sarsia apicula (Murbach and Shearer, 1902) and Sarsia princeps (Haeckel, 1879) from British Columbia and Puget Sound with an evaluation of their systematic characters. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63:673-681.

Brodeur, R. D. 1998. In situ observations of the association between juvenile fishes and scyphomedusae in
the Bering Sea.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 163: 11-20.

Brodeur, R.D., C. E. Mills, J. E. Overland, G.E. Walters and J. D. Schumacher. 1999. Evidence for a substantial increase in gelatinous zooplankton in the Bering Sea, with possible links to climate change. Fisheries Oceanography, 8(4):296-306. 

Buecher, E, C. Sparks, A. Brierley, H. Boyer and M. Gibbons. 2003. Biometry and size distribution of Chrysaora hysoscella (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) and Aequorea aequorea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) off Namibia with some notes on their parasite Hyperia medusarum.  Journal of Plankton Research, 23(10):1073-1080.

Bullock, T. H. 1943. Neuromuscular facilitation in scyphomedusae. Journal Cell. Comparitive Physiology, 22: 251–272.

Burd, B.J. and R. E. Thomson. 2000.  Distribution and relative importance of jellyfish in a region of hydrothermal venting.  Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research (47)9:1703-1721.

Burke, W.D. 1975. Pelagic Cnidaria of Mississippi Sound and adjacent waters. Gulf Research Reports, 5:23-38.  

Burnett, J.W. 2001. Medical aspects of jellyfish envenomation: parthenogenesis, case reporting and therapy. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

Burnett, J.W., et al. 1998. Autonomic neurotoxicity of jellyfish and marine animal venoms.  Clinical
Autonomic Research, 8(2):125-130.

Calder, D.R. 1971. Hydroids and hydromedusae of the southern Chesapeake Bay. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Special Paper in Marine Science 1, Gloucester Point.

_____. 1971. Nematocysts of polyps of Aurelia, Chrysaora and Cyanea and their utility in identification.  Transactions of the American Microscope Society,  90: 269-274.

____. 1974a. Nematocysts of the coronate scyphomedusa, Linuche unguiculata, with a brief reexamination of scyphozoan nematocyst classification. Chesapeake Science, 15: 170-173.

_____. 1974b. Strobilation of the sea nettle, Chrysaora quinquecirrha, under field conditions. Biological Bulletin, 146: 326–334.

Cargo, D. G. 1975. Comments on the laboratory culture of scyphozoa. Pp. 145–154 in Culture of Marine Invertebrate Animals; Proceedings, W. L. Smith and M. H. Chanley, eds. Plenum Press, New York.

_____ and L.P. Schultz. 1967. Further observations on the biology of the sea nettle and jellyfishes in Chesapeake Bay. Chesapeake Science, 8:209-220.

_____ and G.E. Rabenold. 1980. Observations on the asexual reproduction activities of the sessile stages of the sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Estuaries, 3:20-27.

Caughlan, D. 1984. The captive husbandry of Aurelia aurita. Drum and Croaker, 21(1): 46-49.

Chapman, D.M. 1999. Microanatomy of the bell rim of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77:34-46.

_____. 2001. Development of the tentacles and food groove in the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79:623-632.

Chen Jiekang and D. Gengwu. 1983. Effect of temperature on the strobilation of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculenta Kishinouye – Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae). Acta Zoologica Sinica, 29(3):195-206 [In
Chinese, with English abstract]. 

Condon, R.H., M.B. Decker and J.E. Purcell. 2001. Effects of low oxygen on survival and asexual reproduction of scyphozoan polyps (Chrysaora quinquecirrha).  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments
in Hydrobiology, 155):89-95.

Cones, H.N. Jr. 1969. Strobilation of Chrysaora quinquecirrha polyps in the laboratory. Virginia Journal of Science, 20:16-18.

Conklin, E.G. 1908. The habits and early development of Linerges mercurius. Carnegie Institution of Washington, 103:155-170.

_____. 1909. Two peculiar actinian larvae from Tortugas  Florida. Carnegie Institution of Washington, 103:171-186.

Cornelius, P.F.S. 1982. Hydroids and medusae of the family Campanulariidae recorded from the eastern North Atlantic, with a world synopsis of genera. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Zoology, 42:37-148.  

Costello, J.H. and S.P. Colin. 1994. Morphology, fluid motion and predation by the scyphomedusae Aurelia aurita. Marine Biology, 121:327-334.  

_____. 1995. Flow and feeding by swimming scyphomedusae. Marine Biology, 124:399-406.

Currie, B. and Y. K. Wood. 1995. Identification of Chironex fleckeri envenomation by nematocyst recovery from skin.  Medical Journal of Australia, 162: 478-480.

Custance, D. R. N. 1964. Light as an inhibitor of strobilation in Aurelia aurita. Nature, 204:1219–1220.

_____. 1966. The effect of a sudden rise in temperature on strobilae of Aurelia aurita. Experientia, 22:588- 589.

D’Ambra, I., J.H. Costello and F. Bentivegna. 2001. Flow and prey capture by the scyphomedusa Phyllorhiza punctatq von Lendenfeld, 1884. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

Dawson, M. N. 2000. Variegated mesocosms as alternatives to shore-based planktonkreisels: notes on the husbandry of jellyfish from marine lakes. Journal of Plankton Research, 22:1673–1682.

_____. 2003. Macro-morphological variation among cryptic species of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Marine Biology, 143(2):369-379.

_____. 2004. Some implications of molecular phylogenetics for understanding biodiversity in jellyfishes, with emphasis on Scyphozoa. Hydrobiologia, 530(1):249-260. 

Dawson, M.N. and L.E. Martin. 2001. Geographic variation and ecological adaptation in Aurelia (Scyphozoa,
Semaeostomeae): some implications from molecular phylogenetics. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):259-273. 

Dawson, M.N., L.E. Martin and L.K. Penland. 2001. Jellyfish swarms, tourists, and the Christ-child. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9.

Delap, M. J. 1907. Notes on the rearing, in an aquarium, of Aurelia aurita, L. and Pelagia perla (Slabber). Report on the Sea and Inland Fisheries of Ireland for 1905, Part II. Scientific Investigations: 160-164 + 2 plates.

Dillon, T.M. 1977. Effects of acute change in temperature and salinity on pulsation rates in ephyrae of the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita. Marine Biology, 42:31-35.

Eaken, R.M. and J.A. Westfall. 1962.  Fine structure of photoreceptors in the hydromedusan, Polyorchis penicillatus. PNAS, 48: 826-833.

Eckelbarger, K.J. and R.J. Larson. 1993. Ultrastructural study of the ovary of the sessile scyphozoan, Haliclystus octoradiatus (Cnidaria: Stauromedusae).  Journal of Morphology, 218:225-236.

Edwards, C., 1966. Velella velella (L.): The distribution of its dimorphic forms in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean, with comments on its nature and affinities. In Barnes, H. (ed.), Some contemporary studies in marine science. George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London: 283-296.

_____. 1968. Water movements and the distribution of hydromedusae in British and
adjacent waters. Sarsia, 34:331-346.

Elliott, J.K. and W. C. Leggett. 1997. Influence of temperature on size-dependent predation by a fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and a jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) on larval capelin (Mallotus villosus). Canadian
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 54:2759-2766.

Fautin, D. 2002. Reproduction in Cnidaria. Canadian Journal of  Zoology, 80: 1735-1754.

Fields, W. G. and G. O. Mackie, 1971. Evolution of the Chondrophora: evidence from behavioural studies on
Velella. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada, 28: 1595-1602.

Fitt, W.K. and D.K. Hofmann. 1985. Chemical induction of settlement and metamorphosis of planulae and buds of the reef-dwelling coelenterate Cassiopea andromeda. Proc. Fifth International Coral Reef Symposium, 5:239-244.

Fitt, W.K., D.K. Hofmann, M. Wolk, and M. Rahat. 1987.  Requirement of exogenous inducers for the development of axenic larvae and buds of Cassiopea andromedaMarine Biology, 94:415-422.

Fitt, W.K. and  K. Costley.  1998. The role of temperature in survival of the polyp stage of the tropical
rhizostome jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 222(1-2):79-91.

Fleck, J. and D.K. Hofmann. 1990.  The efficiency of metamorphosis inducing oligopeptides in Cassiopea
species (Cnidaria:Scyphozoa) depends on both primary structure and amino and carboxiterminal substituents. Proceedings German Zoological Society, 83:452-453.

_____. 1995.  In vivo binding of a biologically active peptide in vegetative buds of the scyphozoan Cassiopea  andromeda: demonstration of receptor-mediated induction of metamorphosis. 
Marine Biology, 122:447-451.

Fleck, J. and W.K. Fitt. 1999.  Degrading mangrove leaves of Rhizophora mangle Linne provide a natural cue for settlement and metamorphosis of the upside down jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 234(1):83-94.

Fleck, J., W.K. Fitt and M.G. Hahn.  1999.  A proline-rich peptide originating from decomposing mangrove leaves is one natural metamorphic cue of the tropical jellyfish Cassiopeia xamachana. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 183(115-124).

Foerster, R.E. 1923. The Hydromedusae of the west coast of North America, with special reference to those of the Vancouver Island Region. Contributions to Canadian Biology (New Series), 1:219-277, 5 pls.

Fosså, J.H. 1992. Mass occurrence of Periphylla periphylla (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) in a Norwegian fjord. Sarsia, 77:237-251.

Francis, L., 1985. Design of a small cantilevered sheet: the sail of Velella velella. Pacific Science, 3: 1-15.

_____. 1991. Sailing downwind: aerodynamic performance of the Velella sail.  Journal of Experimental Biology, 158:117-132.

Frandsen, K.T. and H.U. Riisgaard. 1997.  Size dependent respiration and growth of jellyfish, Aurelia
Sarsia, 82(4):307-312.

Freeman, G. and E.B. Ridgway. 1990. Cellular and intracellular pathways mediating the metamorphic stimulus in hydrozoan planulae. Roux’s Archives Developmental Biology 199: 63–79.

Fukuda, Y. and T. Naganuma. 2001. Potential dietary effects on the fatty acid composition of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Marine Biology, 138(5):1029-1035.

Gasca, R. 1999. Siphonophores (Cnidaria) and summer mesoscale features in the Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science, 65:75-89.

Gatz, A.J., V.S. Kennedy and J.A. Mihursky. 1973. Effects of temperature on activity and mortality of the scyphozoan medusa, Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Chesapeake Science, 14(3):171-180.

Gershwin, L. 2001. Systematics and biogeography of the jellyfish Aurelia labiata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Biological Bulletin, 201(1):104- .

_____. 2003. Scyphozoa and cubozoa of Guam. Micronesia, 35-36:156-158.

_____ and M.S. Schaadt. 1995. Strobilation induction in cold-water Aurelia aurita at the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium. Drum and Croaker, 26:4-8.

Gilchrist, F. C. 1937. Rearing of the scyphistoma of Aurelia in the laboratory. Culture methods of
invertebrate animals. P.S.G. e. alia. Ithaca: 143.

_____. 1937. Budding and locomotion in the scyphistomas of Aurelia. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole), 72: 99-124, figs. 1-9.

Gili, J.M., J. Bouillon, F. Pages, A. Palanques, P. Puig, and S. Heussner. 1998. Origin and biogeography of the deep-water Mediterranean Hydromedusae including the description of two new species collected in submarine canyons of northwestern Mediterranean. Scientia Marina, 62:113-134.

Gili, J.M., et al. 2000.  A multidisciplinary approach to the understanding of hydromedusan populations inhabiting Mediterranean submarine canyons. Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research, 47(8):1513-1533. 

Graham, W.M. 2001. Numerical increases and distributional shifts of Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor) and Aurelia aurita (Linne) (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9.

Graham, W.M., D.L. Martin, D.L. Felder, V.L. Asper, and H.M. Perry. 2003. Ecological and economic implications of a tropical jellyfish invader in the Gulf of Mexico. Biological Invasions, 5(1-2):53-69.

Greenberg, N., R.L. Garthwaite, and D.C. Potts. 1996. Allozyme and morphological evidence for a newly introduced species of Aurelia in San Francisco Bay, California. Marine Biology, 125:401-410.

Grigoriev, et. al. 1996. A cardiac-like sodium current in motor neurons of a jellyfish. Journal of
Neurophysiology,  76:2240-2249.

Groat, C. S., C. R. Thomas, and K. Schurr. 1980. Improved culture of Aurelia aurita scyphistomae for bioassay and research. Ohio Journal of Science, 80:83–87.

Gutschick, R. C. and J. Rodriguez, 1990. By-the-wind sailors from a late Devonian foreshore environment in western Montana. Journal of Paleontology, 64: 31-39.

Gwilliam, G.F. 1956. Studies on West Coast Stauromedusae. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 

Haddock, S. H. D., T. J. Rivers, and B. H. Robison. 2001. Can coelenterates make coelenterazine? Dietary requirements for luciferin in cnidarian bioluminescence. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences USA, 98:11148–11151.

Hagadorn, J. W., R.H. Dott, and D. Damrow. 2002. Stranded on a late Cambrian shoreline: Medusae from central Wisconsin. Geology, 30(2):147-150.

Hamada, T. 1977. Medusae and their conditions to be fossilized. Fossils, 27:61-75.

Hamner, W. M. and D. Schneider. 1986. Regularly spaced rows of medusae in the Bering Sea: Role of Langmuir circulation. Limnology and Oceanography, 31:171–177.

Hand, C. 1954. Three Pacific species of “Lar” (including a new species), their hosts, medusae, and relationships (Coelenterata, Hydrozoa). Pacific Science, 8:51-67.

Hanelt, B., D. van Schyndel, C.M. Adema, L.A. Lewis, and E.S. Loker. 1996. The phylogenetic position of Rhopalura ophiocomae (Orthonectida) based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Marine Biology Evolution, 13:1187-1191. 

Hanson, L.J. 1997.  Capture and digestion of the scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita by Cyanea
and prey response to predator contact. Journal of Plankton Research, 19(2):195-208.

Hansson, L.J. 1997.  Effect of temperature on growth rate of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) from Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 161:145-153.

Harbison, G. R., K. L. Smith, Jr., and R. H. Backus. 1973. Stygiomedusa fabulosa from the North Atlantic: its taxonomy, with a note on its natural history. Journal of the Marine Biological Association U.K., 53:615-617.

Hayashi, Y. 1998.  Detrimental effect of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita on cooling of sea water in the fish hold of set net fishing boat. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 64: 1046-1052.

Hirano, Y.M. 1986. Species of Stauromedusae from Hokkaido, with notes on their metamorphosis. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series 6 (Zoology), 24:182-201. 

_____. 1997. A review of a supposedly circumboreal species of Stauromedusa, Haliclystus auricula (Rathke, 1806). Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, 1995:247-252.

Hiromi, J., T. Yamamoto, Y. Koyama and S. Kadota. 1995. Experimental study of predation of scyphopolyp Aurelia aurita. Bulletin of the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine Nihon University, 0(52):126-130. 

Hirst, A.G. and C.H. Lucas. 1998. Salinity influences body weight quantification in the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita: important implications for body weight determination in gelatinous zooplankton.
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 165:259-269. 

Hofmann, D.K., R. Neumann, and K. Henne. 1978.  Strobilation, budding, and initiation of scyphistoma morphogenesis in the rhizostome Cassiopea andromeda (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa).  Marine Biology, 47:161-176.

Hofmann, D.K. and B. P. Kremer. 1981. Carbon metabolism and strobilation in Cassiopea andromeda (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa): Significance of endosymbiontic dinoflagellates. Marine Biology, 65: 25-33.

Hofmann, D.K., K. Bernardy, and U. Brand. 1984. Asexual reproduction in Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphozoa): Induction of settlement and metamorphosis in vegetative buds. In: W. Engels (Ed.) Advances in Invertebrate Reproduction, 3:592, Elsevier: Amsterdam.

Hofmann, D.K. and U. Brand. 1986. Is induction of polyp morphogenesis in Cassiopea andromeda
(Cnidaria) based on interorganismic chemical signals? 
Advances in Invertebrate Reproduction, 4:519.

Hofmann, D.K. and U. Brand. 1987.  Induction of metamorphosis in the symbiotic scyphozoan Cassiopea andromeda: Role of marine bacteria and of biochemicals. Symbiosis, 4:99-116.

Hofmann, D.K. and T.G. Honegger. 1990.  Bud formation and bud metamorphosis in Cassiopea
(Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): A developmental and ultrastructural study. Marine Biology, 105:509-518.

Hofmann, D.K. and M.Gottlieb. 1991. Bud formation in Cassiopea andromeda: Epithelial dynamicsand fate map. Hydrobiologia, 216/217:53-59.

Hofmann, D.K. and G. Henning. 1991.  Effects of axenic culture on asexual reproduction and metamorphosis in the symbiotic scyphozoan Cassiopea andromeda.  Symbiosis, 10:83-93.

Hofmann, D.K., B. Manitz, and B. Reckenfelderbäumer. 1992. Metamorphosis in the scyphozoan Cassiopea
Cellular and morphogenetic responses to exogenous inducers.
 Proceedings 7th International Coral Reef Symposium, 463-470.

Hofmann, D., W.K. Fitt, and J. Fleck. 1996. Checkpoints in the lifecycle on Cassiopea spp.: control of metagenesis and metamorphosis in a tropical jellyfish.  International Journal of Developmental Biology, 40:331-338.

Hofmann, D.K. andG. Crow. 2002. Induction of larval metamorphosis in the tropical scyphozoan Mastigias papua: striking similarity with upside down-jellyfish Cassiopea spp. (with notes on  related species). Vie Milieu, 52(4):141-147.

Hofmann, D.K. and M.G. Hadfield. 2002. Hermaphroditism, gonochorism, and asexual reproduction in Cassiopea sp.: an immigrant in the Islands of Hawai’i.  Invertebrate Reproduction & Development, 41(1-3): 215-221.

Hogler, J. A. and R. A. Hanger. 1989. A New Chondrophorine Hydrozoa Velellidae from the Upper Triassic of Nevada Usa. Journal of Paleontology, 63: 249-251.

Horridge, G.A. (1959).  The nerves and muscles of medusae. VI. The Rhythm. Journal of   Experimental Biology,  36:72-91.

Hsieh, P.Y-H, F-M Leong and J. Rudloe. 2001. Jellyfish as food.  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

Huxley, T. H. 1859. The Oceanic Hydrozoa: A description of the Calycophoridae and Physophoridae observed during the voyage of the H.M.S. “Rattlesnake” in the years 1846-1850. Ray Society, London, x + 143, with 112 plates pp.

Hyman, L.H. 1940. Observations and experiments on the physiology of medusae. Biological Bulletin, 79:282-296. 

Isaeva, V.V., A.V. Chernyshev, and D.Y. Shkuratov. 2001. Quasi-fractal organization of the gastrovascular system of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita: Order and chaos. Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics, 377 (1-6): 110-112.

Ishii, H. and U. Baamstedt.  1998. Food regulation of growth and maturation in a natural population of Aurelia aurita (L.).  Journal of Plankton Research, 20(5):805-816.

Ishii, H. and F. Tanaka. 2001. Food and feeding of Aurelia aurita in Tokyo Bay with an analysis of stomach contents and a measurement of digestion times. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):311-320. 

Jankowski, T. 2001. The freshwater medusae of the world – a taxonomic and systematic literature study with some remarks on other inland water jellyfish. Hydrobiologia, 462(1-3): 91-113. 

_____. 2004. Predation of freshwater jellyfish on Bosmina : the consequences for population dynamics, body size, and morphology. Hydrobiologia, 530(1):521-528.

Jarms, G,  U. Baemstedt, H. Tiemann,  M.B. Martinussen and J.H. Fossae. 1999.  The holopelagic life cycle of the deep-sea medusa Periphylla periphylla (Scyphozoa, Coronatae).  Sarsia, 84(1):55-65.

Jarms, G., H. Tiemann, and U. Båmstedt. 2002. Development and biology of Periphylla periphylla (Scyphozoa: Coronatae) in a Norwegian fjord. Marine Biology, 141(4):647-657.

Jarms, G., A.C. Morandini, et al. 2002. Cultivation of polyps and medusae of Coronatae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) with a brief review of important characters.  Helgolander Marine Res., 56:203-210.

Jiang Shuang and L.N.C. Jiekang. 1993. Effect of temperature, salinity and light on the germination of the podocyst of Rhopilema esculenta Kishinouye. Fisheries Science (Liaoning), 12(9):1-4 [In Chinese, with English and Chinese summaries].

Johnson, D.R., H.M. Perry and W.D. Burke. 2001. Developing jellyfish strategy hypotheses using circulation models.  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):213-221. 

Kass-Simon, G. and A.A. Scappaticci. 2002. The behavioral and developmental physiology of nematocysts. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80:1772–1794.

Keen, S. L. 1987. Recruitment of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) larvae is position-dependent, and independent of conspecific density, within a settling surface. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 38:151–160.

Kendall, J.M. and M.N. Badminton. 1998. Aequorea victoria bioluminescence moves into an exciting new era. Trends in Biotechnology, 16(5):216-224.

Kingsford, M.J., K.A. Pitt and B.M. Gillanders. 2000. Considerations for the management of fisheries for jellyfish with special reference to Catostylus mosaicus (O. Rhizostomeae) in Australia. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 38:85-156.

Kinoshita, J., J. Hiromi and S. Kadota. 1997.  Do respiratory metabolic rates of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita scale isometrically throughout ontogeny in a sexual generation? Hydrobiologia, 347(1-3):51-55.

Kirkpatrick, P.A. and P.R. Pugh. 1984. Siphonophores and Velellids. E.J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys, London, 154 pp.

Komai, T. 1935. On Stephanoscyphus and Nausithoë. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto, 10: 289-339.

Kramp, P.L. 1961. Synopsis of the medusae of the world. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, U.K., 40:1-469.

_____. 1965. The Hydromedusae of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Dana Report, 63:1-162.

______. 1968. The Hydromedusae of the Pacific and Indian Oceans: Sections II and III. Dana Report, 72:1-200.

Kremer, P., et al. 1990. Significance of photosynthetic endosymbionts to the carbon budget of the
scyphomedusa Linuche unguiculata. Limnology and Oceanography 35: 609-624.

Kroiher, M. and S. Berking. 1999. On natural metamorphosis inducers of the cnidarians Hydractinia echinata (Hydrozoa) and Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa). Helgoland Marine Research, 53(2):118-121.

Lambert, R. J. 1935. Jellyfish. The difficulties of the study of their life cycle and other problems. Essex Naturalist, 25:70-86, pl. III-IV.

_____. 1935b. Observations on the scyphomedusae of the Thames estuary and their metamorphosis. Travaux de la Station Zoologique de Wimereux, 12: 281-307.

Lange, J. and R. Kaiser. 1995. The maintenance of pelagic jellyfish in the Zoo-Aquarium Berlin. International Zoo Yearbook, 34:59-64.

Larson, R.J. 1976. Cubomedusae: feeding – functional morphology, behavior and phylogenetic position. Pp. 237-245 In Coelenterate Ecology and Behavior, G.O. Mackie (ed.). Plenum Press, New York.

_____. 1976. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States. Cnidaria: Scyphozoa.  NOAA Technical Report National Marine Fisheries Service Circular 397.  

______. 1979. Feeding in coronate medusae (Class Scyphozoa, Order Coronatae). Marine Behavior and Physiology, 6:123-129.

______. 1980. The medusa of Velella velella (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hydrozoa, Chondrophorae). Journal of Plankton Research, 2:183-186.

_____. 1986. Pelagic Scyphomedusae (Scyphozoa: Coronatae and Semaeostomeae) of the Southern Ocean. Antarctic Research Series, 41(3):59-165. 

_____. 1988. Kyopoda lamberti gen. nov., sp. nov., an atypical Stauromedusa (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria) from the eastern Pacific, representing a new family. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66:2301-2303. 

______. 1990. Scyphomedusae and Cubomedusae from the eastern Pacific. Bulletin of Marine Science, 47:546-556.

_____. 1991. Why jellyfish stick together—Caribbean thimble jellies travel in the same circles. Natural
History, 66–71.

______. 1992. Riding Langmuir circulations and swimming in circles: a novel clustering behavior by the scyphomedusa Linuche unguiculata. Marine Biology, 112:229-235.

Larson, R.J., and A.C. Arneson, 1990. Two medusae new to the coast of California: Carybdea marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758), a Cubomedusa and Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884, a rhizostome Scyphomedusa. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science, 89, 130-136.

Larson, R.J., and D.G. Fautin, 1989. Stauromedusae of the genus Manania (=Thaumatoscyphus) (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the northeast Pacific, including descriptions of new species Manania gwilliami and Manania handi. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 67:1543-1549.

Larson, R.J. and G.H. Harbison. 1990. Medusae from McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea including the descriptions of two new species, Leuckartiara brownei and Benthocodon hyalinus. Polar Biology, 11:19-25.

Larson, R.J., C.E. Mills, and G.R. Harbison. 1991. Western Atlantic midwater hydrozoan and scyphozoan medusae: in situ studies using manned submersibles. Hydrobiologia, 216/217:311-317.

Larson, R. J., G. I. Matsumoto, L. P. Madin, and L. M. Lewis. 1992. Deep-sea benthic and benthopelagic medusae: recent observations from submersibles and a remotely operated vehicle. Bulletin of Marine Science, 51:277–286.

Leonard, J.L. 1983. The effect of environmental factors on swimming activity in Sarsia tubulosa M. Sars (Hydrozoa). Mar. Behav. Physiol., 9:99-110.

Loeb, M.J. 1972. Strobilation in the Chesapeake Bay sea nettle – I. The effects of environmental temperature changes on strobilation and growth. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 180:279-292.

Lotan, A.,  L. Fishman and E. Zlotkin. 1996. Toxin compartmentation and delivery in the cnidaria: The nematocyst’s tubule as a multiheaded poisonous arrow.  Journal of Experimental Zoology, 275(6):444-451.

Lucas, C.H. 2001. Reproduction and life history strategies of the common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in relation to its ambient environment.  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):229-246. 

Lucas, C.H., A.G. Hirst and J A. Williams. 1997. Plankton dynamics and Aurelia aurita production in two contrasting ecosystems: comparisons and consequences. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 45(2):209-219. 

Lucas, C.H.and S. Lawes. 1998. Sexual reproduction of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita in relation to temperature and variable food supply. Marine Biology, 131(4):629-638.

Mackie, G. O. 1959. The evolution of the Chondrophora (Siphonophora – Disconanthae); New evidence from behavioral studies. Transactions of the Royal Society Canada, Sect. V 53: 7-20. 

_____. 1960. The structure of the nervous system in Velella. Quarterly Journal of Microsc. Science, 101:119–131.

Mackie, G.O. and G.V. Mackie. 1963. Systematic and biological notes on living hydromedusae from Puget Sound. Contributions in Zoology, National Museum of Canada, Bulletin, 199:63-84.

Mackie, G. O., R. J. Larson, K. S. Larson, and L. M. Passano. 1981. Swimming and vertical migration of Aurelia aurita (L) in a deep tank. Marine Behav. Physiology, 7:321–329.

Mackie, G.O., P.R. Pugh, and J.E. Purcell. 1987. Siphonophore biology. Advances in Marine Biology, 24:97-262.

Mackie, G. O., C. L. Singla and S. A. Arkett. 1988. On the nervous system of Velella (Hydrozoa: Chondrophora). Journal of Morphology, 198: 15-24.

Mangum, C.P., M.J. Oakes and J.M. Shick. 1972. Rate – temperature responses in scyphozoan medusae and polyps. Marine Biology, 15:298-303.

Mapstone, G.M. 1998. Bargmannia lata, an undescribed physonect siphonophore (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from Canadian Pacific waters. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 323:141-147.

Margulis, R.Y. 1994. Revision of the genus Rosacea (Cnidaria, Siphonophora, Calycophorae, Prayidae, Prayinae). Hydrobiological Journal, 31:33-50. Translation of Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 73:15-28.

Marliave, J. B. and C. E. Mills. 1993. Piggyback riding by pandalid shrimp larvae on hydromedusae. Canadian Journal of  Zoology, 71: 257-263.

Martin, J.W. and H. G. Kuck 1991.  Faunal associates of an undescribed species of Chrysaora (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the Southern California Bight, with notes on unusual occurrences of other warm water species in the area. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, 90(3): 89-101.

Martin, J.W., L.A. Gershwin, J.W. Burnett, D.G. Cargo and D.A. Bloom. 1997. Chrysaora achlyos, a
remarkable new species of scyphozoan from the eastern Pacific.  Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 193(1):8-13.

Martin, V.J. 2002. Photoreceptors of cnidarians. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80:1703–1722.

_____. 2004. Photoreceptors of cubozoan jellyfish. Hydrobiologia, 530-531(1):135-144.

_____. and R. Koss. 2002. Phylum Cnidaria. Pp. 51–108 in Atlas of Marine Invertebrate Larvae, C. M. Young, ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Martinussen, M.B. and U. Båmstedt. 2001. Digestion rate in relation to temperature of two gelatinous planktonic predators. Sarsia: 86:21-35.

Masilamoni, J. G., K. S. Jesundoss, K. Nandakumar, K. K. Satpathy, K. V. K. Nair, and J. Azariah. 2000. Jellyfish ingress: a threat to the smooth operation of coastal power plants. Curr. Sci. (Bangalore) 79:567–569.

Matanoski, J.,  R. Hood, and J. Purcell. 2001. Characterizing the effect of prey on swimming and feeding efficiency of the scyphomedusa Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Marine Biology, 139(1):191-200.

Matsumoto, G.I. 1995. Observations on the anatomy and behavior of the cubozoan Carybdea rastonii Haacke. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physioliolgy, 26:139-148. 

Mayer, A.G. 1910. Medusae of the world. Scyphomedusae III. Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. 

_____. 1912. Temperature reactions of medusae. Science, N.S.35.

McClary, A. 1959. The effect of temperature on growth and reproduction in Craspedacusta sowerbii. Ecology, 40(1):158-162.

McDermott, J. J., P. L. Zubkoff, et al. 1982. The occurrence of the anemone Peachia parasitica as a symbiont in the scyphozoan Cyanea capillata in the lower Chesapeake Bay. ESTUARIES, 5(4): 319-321.

McGrath, D. 1985. The By-The-wind-sailor Velella velella Coelenterata Hydrozoa in Irish Waters 1976-1984. Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 21: 479-484.

_____., D. Minchin and D. Cotton. 1994. Extraordinary occurrences of the By-The-wind-sailor Velella velella (L.) (Cnidaria) in Irish Waters in 1992. Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 24: 384-426.

McHenry, M.J. and J. Jed. 2002. The ontogenetic scaling of hydrodynamics and swimming performance in jellyfish (Aurelia aurita). Journal of Experimental Biology, 206:4125-4137.

Meech, R.W. 2004. Impulse conduction in the jellyfish Aglantha digitale. Hydrobiologia, 530(1):81-89.

Mianzan, H.W. and P.F.S. Cornelius. 1999. Cubomedusae and Scyphomedusae. Pages 513-559 in D.
Boltovskoy, editor. South Atlantic zooplankton. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. 

_____, M. Pajaro, G.A. Colombo and A. Madirolas. 2001. Feeding on survival-food: gelatinous zooplankton as a source of food for anchovies. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

Miglietta, M. P., L. Della Tommasa, F. Denitto, C. Gravili, P. Pagliara, J. Bouillon, and F. Boero. 2000. Approaches to the ethology of hydroids and medusae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Scientia Marina, 64:63–71.

Mills, C.E., 1981. Seasonal occurrence of planktonic medusae and ctenophores in the San Juan Archipelago (NE Pacific). Wasmann Journal of Biology, 39:6-29.

______. 1981. Diversity of swimming behaviors in hydromedusae as related to feeding and utilization of space. Marine Biology, 64: 185-189.

_____. 1983. Vertical migration and diel activity patterns of hydromedusae: studies in a large tank. Journal of Plankton Research, 5:619–635.

______. 1987. In situ and shipboard studies of living hydromedusae and hydroids: preliminary observations of life cycle adaptations to the open ocean. Pp. 197-207 In Modern Trends in the Systematics, Ecology and
Evolution of Hydroids and Hydromedusae. J. Bouillon, F. Boero, F. Cicogna and P.F.S. Cornelius (eds.). Clarendon Press, Oxford.

______. 1996. Keys to the Hydrozoan Medusae (pp. 32-44, 487-489), Siphonophora (pp. 62-65, 489), Scyphozoa: Semaeostomae (pp. 65-67) and Stauromedusae (p 489). In Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. E.N. Kozloff (ed.). University of Washington Press, Seattle.

_____. 2000. The life cycle of Halimedusa typus with discussion of other species closely related to the family Halimedusidae (Hydrozoa, Capitata, Anthomedusae). Scientia Marina, 64 (supplement 1):97-106.

_____. 2001. Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions?  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

_____, R.J. Larson and M.J. Youngbluth. 1987. A new species of coronate scyphomedusa from the Bahamas, Atorella octogonos. Bulletin of Marine Science, 40:423-427. 

_____ and F. Sommer. 1995. Invertebrate introductions in marine habitats: two species of hydromedusae (Cnidaria) native to the Black Sea, Maeotias inexspectata and Blackfordia virginica, invade San
Francisco Bay. Marine Biology, 122:279-288.

_____ and J. Rees. 2000. New observations and corrections concerning the trio of invasive hydromedusae Maeotias marginata (= M. inexpectata), Blackfordia virginica, and Moerisia sp. in the San Francisco estuary. Scientia Marina, 64 (supplement 1):151-155.

Mills, C. E., F. Boero, A. Migotto, and J. M. Gili, eds. 2000. Trends in Hydrozoan Biology-IV, Scientia Marina, 64 (Supl. 1).

Miyake, H., M. Terazaki, and Y. Kakinuma. 2002. On the polyps of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Kagoshima Bay. Journal of Oceanography, 58(3):451-459.

Morandini, A.C. and F.L. da Silveira. 2001. Sexual reproduction of Nausithoë aurea (Scyphozoa, Coronatae). Gametogenesis, egg release, embryonic development and gastrulation. Scientia Marina, 65(2):139-149.

Morandini, A.C. and A.C. Marques. 2010. Revision of the genus Chrysaora Péron & Lesueur, 1810 (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Zootaxa, 2464:1-97.

Müller, W.A. and T. Leitz. 2002. Metamorphosis in cnidaria. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80: 1755–1771.

Mutlu, E. 2001. Distribution and abundance of moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) and its zooplankton food in the Black Sea.  Marine Biology, 138(2):329-339.

Nagai, T.,  Y. Watarai, and N. Suzuki. 2001. Characterization of β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase from rhizostomous jellyfish, Rhopilema asamushi, mesogloea. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 25(1):53-59.

Naumov, D. V. 1969. Hydroids and hydromedusae of the USSR (J. Salkind, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Trans.). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 660 pp.

Neumann, R., G. Schmahl, and D.K. Hofmann. 1980. Bud formation and control of polyp morphogenesis in Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphozoa).  In: P. Tardent and R. Tardent (Eds.) Developmental and Cellular Biology of Coelenterates, 217-223, Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press.

Nielsen, A.S., A.W. Pedersen and H.U. Riisgaard. 1997.  Implications of density driven currents for interaction between jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) and zooplankton in a Danish fjord. Sarsia, 82(4):297-305.

Olesen, N.J. 1995. Clearance potential of jellyfish Aurelia aurita, and predation impact on zooplankton in a shallow cove. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 124:63-72.

Olesen N.J., J.E. Purcell and D.K. Stoecker. 1996. Feeding and growth by ephyrae of scyphomedusae Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 137:149-159. 

Olmon, J. E. and K. L. Webb. 1974. Metabolism of 131I in relation to strobilation of Aurelia aurita L.
(Scyphozoa). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 16:113–122.

Omori, M. and E. Nakano. 2001. Jellyfish fisheries in southeast Asia.  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in
Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

Omori, M. and M. Kitamura. 2004. Taxonomic review of three Japanese species of edible jellyfish (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae). Plankton Biol. Ecol., 51(1):36-51.

Ostman, C. 1997. Abundance, feeding behaviour and nematocysts of scyphopolyps (Cnidaria) and nematocysts in their predator, the nudibranch Coryphella verrucosa (Mollusca). Hydrobiologia, 355(1-3):21-28.

Ostman, C. and J. Hydman. 1997. Nematocyst analysis of Cyanea capillata and Cyanea lamarckii (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria).  Scientia Marina, 61(3):313-344.

Pages, Francesc. 2000. Biological associations between barnacles and jellyfish with emphasis on the ectoparasitism of Alepas pacifica (Lepadomorpha) on Diplulmaris malayensis (Scyphozoa). Journal of Natural History, 34:2045-56.

Panteleeva, N.N., E.A. Frolova and O.V. Sheiko. 1999.  New records of the benthic medusa Ptychogastria polaris Allman, 1878 (Trachylida, Hydroidea) in the Barents Sea and off the Kurile Islands (Pacific Ocean). Polar Biology, 22(6):372-378.

Pearse, J.S. and V.B. Pearse. 1978. Vision in cubomedusan jellyfishes. Science, 199: 458.

Petersen, K.W. 1990. Evolution and taxonomy in capitate hydroids and medusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 100:101-231.

Piatigorsky, J., J. Horwitz, et al. 1989.  The cellular eye lens and crystallins of cubomedusan jellyfish.  Journal of Comparative Physiology, 164(5): 577-588.

Pitt, K.A. 2000. Life history and settlement preferences of the edible jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae).  Marine Biology, 136(2):269-279.

Pitt, K.A. and M.J. Kingsford. 2000. Reproductive biology of the edible jellyfish Catostylus
(Rhizostomeae). Marine Biology, 137(5/6):791-799.

Pitt, K.A. and M.J. Kingsford. 2000. Geographic separation of stocks of the edible jellyfish, Catostylus mosaicus (Rhizostomeae) in New South Wales, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 196:143-155.

Pugh, P.R. 1992a. A revision of the sub-family Nectopyramidinae (Siphonophora, Prayidae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (B), 335:281-322.

_____. 1992b. The status of the genus Prayoides (Siphonophora: Prayidae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 72:895-909.

_____. 1992c. Desmophyes haematogaster, a new species of prayine siphonophore (Calycophora, Prayidae). Bulletin of Marine Science, 50:89-96.

_____. 1998. A re-description of Frillagalma vityazi Daniel 1966 (Siphonophorae, Agalmatidae). Scientia Marina, 62:233-245.

_____. 1999. A review of the genus Bargmannia Totton, 1954 (Siphonophorae, Physonecta, Pyrostephidae). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, London (Zoology Series), 65:51-72.

Pugh, P.R. and G.R. Harbison. 1987. Three new species of prayine siphonophore (Calycophorae, Prayidae) collected by submersible, with notes on related species. Bulletin of Marine Science, 41:68-91.

Pugh, P.R. and F. Pages. 1995. Is Lensia reticulata a diphyine species (Siphonophora, Calycophora, Diphyidae)? A re-description. Scientia Marina, 59:181-192.

Pugh, P.R. and M.J. Youngbluth. 1988a. Two new species of prayine siphonophore (Calycophorae, Prayidae) collected by the submersibles Johnston-Sea-Link I and II. Journal of Plankton Research, 10:637-657.

_____. 1988b. A new species of Halistemma (Siphonophora, Physonectae, Agalmidae) collected by submersible. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 68:1-14.

Purcell, J.E. 1980. Influence of siphonophore behavior on their natural diets; evidence for aggressive mimicry. Science, 209:1045-1047. 

_____. 1981. Selective predation and caloric consumption by the siphonophore Rosacea cymbiformis in nature. Marine Biology, 63:283-294. 

_____. 1981. Dietary composition and diel feeding patterns of epipelagic siphonophores. Marine Biology, 65:83-90.

Purcell, J.E. and J.H. Cowan. 1995. Predation by the scyphomedusan Chrysaora quinquecirrha on Mnemiopsis leidyi ctenophores. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 129:63-70. 

Purcell, J.E,  J.R. White, D.A. Nemazie and D.A. Wright. 1999. Temperature, salinity and food effects on asexual reproduction and abundance of the scyphozoan Chrysaora quinquecirrha.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 180:187-196.

Purcell, J.E., U. Bamstedt and A. Bamstedt. 1999. Prey, feeding rates, and asexual reproduction rates of the introduced oligohaline hydrozoan Moerisia lyonsi.  Marine Biology, 134(2):317-325.

Purcell, J.E., et. al. 2000. Aggregations of the jellyfish Aurelia labiata: abundance, distribution, association with age-0 walleye pollock, and behaviors promoting aggregation in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 195:145-158.

Purcell, J.E. and M. N. Arai. 2001. Interactions of pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores with fish: a review.
Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9.

Purcell, J.E., W.M. Graham, and H.J. Dumont (Eds.). 2001. Jellyfish blooms: ecological and societal importance. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Purcell, J.E. and M.V. Sturdevant. 2001. Prey selection and dietary overlap among zooplanktivorous jellyfish and juvenile fishes in Prince William Sound, Alaska.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 210:67-83.

Radwan, F., L. Gershwin and J. Burnett. 2000. Toxilogical studies on the nematocyst venom of Chrysaora achlyos. Toxicon, 38: 1581-1591.

Rahat, M. and O. Adar. 1980. Effect of symbiotic zooxanthellae and temperature on budding and strobilation in Cassiopeia andromeda. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole), 159:394-401.

Rahat, M. and D.K. Hofmann. 1987.  Bacterial and algal effects on metamorphosis in the life-cycle of Cassiopea andromedaAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 503:449-458.

Raikova, E.V. 1994. Life cycle, cytology, and morphology of Polypodium hydriforme, a coelenterate parasite of the eggs of acipensieriform fishes. Journal of Parasitology, 80:1-22.

Ralph, P.M. 1960. Tetraplatia, a coronate scyphomedusan. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, 152:263-281.

Raskoff, K.A. 2001. The impact of El Nino events on populations of mesopelagic hydromedusae.  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):121-129.

_____. 2002. Foraging, prey capture, and gut contents of the mesopelagic narcomedusa, Solmissus (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Marine Biology, 141:1088–1107.

Rees, J. T. 1979. Laboratory and field studies on Eutonina indicans (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa), a common
leptomedusa of Bodega Bay, California. Wasmann Journal of Biology, 36:201–209.

_____. 2000. A pandeid hydrozoan, Amphinema sp., new and probably introduced to central California: life history, morphology, distribution, and systematics. Scientia Marina, 64 (supplement 1):165-172. 

Rees, J. T. and R.J. Larson. 1980. Morphological variation in the hydromedusa genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 58, 2089-2095.

Rees, J.T. and L.A. Gershwin. 2000. Non-indigenous hydromedusae in California’s upper San Francisco Estuary: life cycles, distribution, and potential environmental impacts. Scientia Marina, 64 (supplement 1):73-86. 

Rees, W. J. and F. S. Russell. 1937. On rearing the hydroids of certain medusae, with an account of the methods used. Journal of the Marine Biological Association UK, 22:61–82.

Robison, B. H., K. R. Reisenbichler, R. E. Sherlock, J. M. B. Silguero, and F. P. Chavez. 1998. Seasonal abundance of the siphonophore, Nanomia bijuga, in Monterey Bay. Deep-Sea Research II, 45:1741–1751.

Rogers, C.A., D.C. Biggs, and R.A. Cooper. 1978. Aggregation of the siphonophore Nanomia cara in the Gulf of Maine: observations from a submersible. Fisheries Bulletin, 76: 281–284.

Russell, F.S. 1953. The Medusae of the British Isles: Anthomedusae, Leptomedusae, Limnomedusae, Trachymedusae and Narcomedusae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 530 pp., 35 pls.

_____. 1959. A viviparous deep-sea jellyfish. Nature,1527-1529.

______. 1970. The Medusae of the British Isles. II. Pelagic Scyphozoa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 284 pp.

_____. and W. J. Rees. 1960. The viviparous scyphomedusa Stygiomedusa fabulosa Russell. Journal of the Marine Biological Association U.K., 39:303-317.

Satterlie, R.A. 1979. Central control of swimming in the cubomedusan Carybdea rastonii. Journal
of  Comparative Physiology,  133:357-367.

_____.  1985.  Putative extraocular photoreceptors in the outer nerve ring of Polyorchis penicillatus. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 233:133-137.

_____. 2002. Neuronal control of swimming in jellyfish: a comparative story. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80:1654–1669.

Schaadt, M. S. 1993. Joining the jelly revolution on a shoestring budget. Third International Aquarium Congress (Boston): 262-264.

Schaadt, M., L.Yasukochi, L. Gershwin and D. Wrobel. 2001. Husbandry of the black jelly (Chrysaora achlyos), a newly discovered scyphozoan in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Bulletin de l’Institut Oceanographique, Monaco Special 20(fasc. 1): 289-296.

Schmahl, G. 1985. Bacterially induced stolon settlement in the scyphopolyp of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria,
Scyphozoa). Helgol. Meeresunters., 39:33–42.

Schneider, G. and G. Behrends. 1994. Population dynamics and the trophic role of Aurelia aurita medusae in the Kiel Bight and western Baltic. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 51(4):359-367.

Schubert, P. 1996. The marine Fauna of New Zealand: athecate hydroids and their medusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoirs, 106:1-159. 

Schuyler, Q. and B.K. Sullivan. 1997.  Light responses and diel migration of the scyphomedusa Chrysaora
in mesocosms. Journal of Plankton Research, 19(10):1417-1428.

Segura-Puertes, L. 1984. Morphology, systematics and zoogeography of medusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) from the eastern tropical Pacific. Inst. Cienc. del Mar y Limnol. Univ. Nal. Auton. Mexico Publ. Esp., 8:1-320.

Sherlock, R.E. and B.H. Robison. 2000. Effects of temperature on the development and survival of Nanomia bijuga (Hydrozoa, Siphonophora). Invertebrate Biology, 119(4):379-385.

Shimomura, O., et al. 2001. Isolation and properties of the luciferase stored in the ovary of the scyphozoan medusa Periphylla periphylla. Biological Bulletin, 210:339-347. 

Siefker, B., M. Kroiher and S. Berking. 2000. Induction of metamorphosis from the larval to the polyp stage is similar in Hydrozoa and a subgroup of Scyphozoa (Cnidaria, Semaeostomeae). Helgoland Marine Research, 54(4):230-236.

da Silveira, F.L. and A.C. Morandini.  1998.  Asexual reproduction in Linuche unguiculata (Swartz, 1788) (Scyphozoa: Coronatae) by planuloid formation through strobilation and segmentation. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 111(4): 781-794.

Skogsberg, T. 1948. A systematic study of the Family Polyorchidae (Hydromedusae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series, 26(5):101-124.

Soares Moreira, G. 1978. A preliminary laboratory study on the salinity and temperature tolerances of some medusae from the Sao Paulo coast, Brazil. Bolm Inst. Oceanogr., Sao Paulo, 27(2):45-55.

Sommer, F. 1986. Methods for culture and display of the moon jelly, Aurelia aurita. American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums Regional Conference Proceedings, Western Regional Conference, Tacoma, WA.

_____. 1992a. Advances in culture and display of Aurelia aurita, the moon jelly. American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums Regional Conference Proceedings: 391-396.

_____. 1992b. Husbandry aspects of a jellyfish exhibit at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Pp. 362–369 in American Associations of Zoological Parks and Aquariums Annual Conference Proceedings, Toronto.

_____. 1993. Jellyfish and beyond: husbandry of gelatinous zooplankton at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Pp. 249–261 in Proceedings of the Third International Aquarium Congress, Boston, MA.

Soong, K. and L.C. Cho. 1998. Synchronized release of medusae from three species of hydrozoan fire corals. Coral Reefs, 17(2):145-154.

Spadinger, R. and G. Maier. 1999. Prey selection and diel feeding of the freshwater jellyfish, Craspedacusta sowerbyi. Freshwater Biology, 41(3):567-573.

Spangenberg, D. B. 1964. New observations on Aurelia. Transactions American Micro. Society, 83:448-455, pl. I-II.

_____. 1965a. Cultivation of the life stages of Aurelia aurita under controlled conditions. Journal of
Experimental Zoology, 159:303–318.

_____. 1965b. A study of strobilation in Aurelia aurita under controlled conditions. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 160:1-10.

_____. 1967. Iodine induction of metamorphosis in Aurelia. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 165:441-450.

_____. 1968. Recent studies of strobilation in jellyfish. Oceanography Marine Biology Annual Review, 6:231-247.

_____. 1971. Thyroxine induced metamorphosis in Aurelia. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 178:183–194.

_____. 1974. Thyroxine in early strobilation in Aurelia. American Zoologist, 14:825-831.

Spangenberg, D.B., F.A. Lattanzio, and G. Navarro. 2004. Methionine and gold chloride alleviate adverse effects of glutamate on motility of ephyrae of Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1758) (Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae). Hydrobiologia, 530-531(1):355-363. 

Sparks, C., et al. 2001. Observations on the distribution and relative abundance of the scyphomedusan Chrysaora hysoscella (Linne, 1766) and the hydrozoan Aequorea aequorea (Forskal, 1775) in the northern Benguela ecosystem.  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):275-286. 

Spencer, A.N.  1978. Neurobiology of Polyorchis  I. Function of effector systems. Journal of Neurobiology,  9:143-157.

Spencer, A.N.  1982.  The physiology of a coelenterate neuromuscular synapse. Journal of Comparative
Physiology, 148: 353-363.

Stanley, G. D., Jr. and T. E. Yancey. 1986. A new late Paleozoic chondrophorine (Hydrozoa, Velellidae) by-the-wind sailor from Malaysia. Journal of Paleontology, 60: 76-83.

Strand, S.W. and W.M. Hamner. 1988. Predatory behavior of Phacellophora camtschatica and size-selective predation upon Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa: Cnidaria) in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia. Marine Biology, 99:409-414.

Stepanjants, S.D., A.L. Lobanov, and M.B. Dianov. 1999. New approaches to the search for interspecies diagnostic differences within the genus Obelia. Analysis of growth and development of free medusae of Obelia spp. from different areas of the world Ocean (under laboratory conditions). Zoosystematica Rossica Suppl., No. 1:34-50. 

Stretch, J.J., and J.M. King. 1980. Direct fission: an undescribed reproductive method in hydromedusae. Bulletin of Marine Science, 30:522-525.

Suarez-Morales, E.,  L. Segura-Puertas and R. Gasca.  1999.  Medusan (Cnidaria) assemblages off the Caribbean Coast of Mexico.  Journal of Coastal Research, 15(1):140-147.

Suchman, C.L. and B.K. Sullivan. 1998. Vulnerability of the copepod Acartia tonsa to predation by
the scyphomedusa Chrysaora quinquecirrha: Effect of prey size and behavior. Marine Biology, 132(2):237-245.

Suchman, C. L. and B. K. Sullivan. 2000. Effect of prey size on vulnerability of copepods to predation by the
scyphomedusae Aurelia aurita and Cyanea sp. Journal of Plankton Research, 22:2289–2306.

Sugiura, Y. 1965. On the life history of rhizostome medusae. III. On the effects of temperature on the strobilation of Mastigias papua. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole), 128:493-496.

Sullivan, B.K., C.L. Suchman and J.H. Costello. 1997.  Mechanics of prey selection by ephyrae of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita.  Marine Biology, 130(2):213-222.

Tamburri, M. N., M. N. Halt, and B. H. Robison. 2000. Chemically regulated feeding by a midwater medusa. Limnology and Oceanography, 45:1661–1666.

Thieme, C. and D.K. Hofmann. 2003. An endogenous peptide is involved in internal control of metamorphosis in the marine invertebrate Cassiopea xamachana (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Dev. Genes Evol., 213:97-101.

_____. 2003. Control of head morphogenesis in an invertebrate’s asexually produced larva-like bud (Cassiopea andromeda; Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Dev. Genes Evol., 213:127-133.

Thomas, L. 1963. Phyllosoma larvae associated with medusae. Nature, 198: 208.

Thuesen, E.V. 1993. Vampyrocrossota childressi, a new genus and species of black medusa from the bathypelagic zone off California (Cnidaria: Trachymedusae: Rhopalonematidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 106(1):190-194.

_____ and J.J. Childress. 1994. Oxygen consumption rates and metabolic enzyme activities of oceanic California medusae in relation to body size and habitat depth. Biological Bulletin, 187:84-98.

Torrey, H.B. 1909. The Leptomedusae of the San Diego Region. University of California Publications in Zoology, 6:11-31.

Totton, A.K. 1965a. A Synopsis of the Siphonophora. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London, 230 pp, 40 pls.

_____. 1965b. A new species of Lensia (Siphonophora: Diphyidae) from the coastal waters of Vancouver, B.C., and its comparison with Lensia achilles Totton and another new species Lensia cordata. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (13)8:71-76.

Tsien, R.Y. 1998. The green fluorescent protein. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 67:509-544.

Uchida, T. 1929. Studies on the Stauromedusae and Cubomedusae, with special reference to their metamorphosis. Japanese Journal of Zoology, 2:103-193.

Ueno, S., C. Imai and A. Mitsutani. 1997. Statolith formation and increment in Carybdea rastoni: evidence of synchronization with semilunar rhythms.  Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on coelenterate
biology, ed. Den Hartog, pp. 491-496.

Utter, B. D. 2001. Culturing the umbrella jelly, Eutonina indicans (Romanes, 1876). Drum and Croaker 32:

Vader, W. 1972. Associations between gammarid and caprellid amphipods and medusae. Sarsia, 50:51-56. 

Verde, E.A. and L.R. McCloskey. 1998.  Production, respiration, and photophysiology of the mangrove
jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana symbiotic with zooxanthellae: Effect of jellyfish size and season.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 168:147-162.

Watanabe, T. and H. Ishii. 2001. In situ estimation of ephyrae liberated from polyps of Aurelia aurita
using settling plates in Tokyo Bay, Japan.  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):247-258. 

Werner, B. 1973. New investigations on the systematics and evolution of the class Scyphozoa and the phylum Cnidaria. Publications Seto Marine Biology Laboratory, 20: 35–61.

Williams, E. H., Jr., L. Bunkley-Williams, C.G. Lilyestrom, R.J. Larson, N.A. Engstrom, E.A.R. Ortiz-Corps, and J.H. Timber. 2001. A population explosion of the rare tropical/subtropical purple sea mane, Drymonema dalmatinum, around Puerto Rico in the summer and fall of 1999. Caribbean Journal of Science, 37(1-2): 127-130.

Wittenberg, J. B. 1960. The source of carbon monoxide in the float of the Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia physalis L. Journal of Experimental Biology, 37: 698-705.

Woodcock, A.H. 1997.  Why sailing sea animals have mirror images.  Pacific Science, 51(1):12-17.

Yanagihara, A.A., J.M.Y. Kuroiwa, and D.D. Kunkel. 2002. Ultrastructural characterization of nematocysts from the Hawaiian box jellyfish (Carybdea alata).  Cell and Tissue Research, 308:307-318.

Yanagihara, A.A., J.M.Y. Kuroiwa, L. Oliver, and D.D. Kunkel. 2002. The ultrastructure of nematocysts from the fishing tentacle of the Hawaiian bluebottle, Physalia utriculus (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Siphonophora).  Hydrobiologia, 489:139-150.

Yamamoto, T., J. Hiromi, J. Kinoshita and S. Kadota. 1996. Effect of food condition upon the growth and survival in early developmental stages of scyphomedusa, Aurelia aurita. Bulletin of the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine Nihon University, 53:79-82.

Yasuda, T. 1969. Ecological studies on the jellyfish, Aurelia aurita in Urazoko Bay, Fukui Pref. – III. Growth. The Aquaculture, 17(3):145-154.

Youngbluth, M.J. and U. Bamstedt. 2001. Distribution, abundance, behavior and metabolism of Periphylla periphylla, a mesopelagic coronate medusa in a Norwegian fjord.  Hydrobiologia 451
(Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):321-333. 

FacebookTwitterGoogle+PinterestLinkedInGoogle BookmarksStumbleUponRedditShare

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *