Cnidarian References

Listed here are a variety of scientific papers that relate to the study of cnidarian jellies. These papers are published in scientific journals that are not available in public libraries – you will need access to a university library or online sources. Note that references with author names in color are links to abstracts (summaries) provided by several publishing companies that produce scientific journals. In most cases, the full journal papers are available online by paid subscription (check the home page of each publishing company for details).

To search for online literature, use the new Google tool below (About Google Scholar). Use any information available – author, topic, title, words that appear in title, etc. If you see a reference below that strikes your fancy, use that information for the search. Make your query as specific as possible to limit the number of search results. If you’re lucky, you’ll come up with a link to the complete research paper, or at least an abstract. This is a new service so don’t expect everything to be online, but with time it should improve.

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Abe, Y. and M. Hisada. 1969. On a new rearing method of common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita. Bulletin Marine Biol. Stn. Asamushi, 13: 205–209.

Acker, T.S. 1976. Craspedacusta sowerbyi: an analysis of an introduced species. Pages 219-226 in G.O.
Mackie, editor. Coelenterate ecology and behavior. Plenum Press, New York. 

Acuña, J. L., D. Deibel, and S. Sooley. 1994. A simple device to transfer large and delicate planktonic organisms. Limnology and Oceanography, 39: 2001–2003.

Afzelius, B.A. and A. Franzen. 1971. The spermatozoon of the jellyfish Nausithoe. Journal of Ultrastructure
Research, 37: 186-199.

Agassiz, A., 1883. Exploration of the surface fauna of the Gulf Stream. III. Part 1. The Porpitidae and Velellidae. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 8: 16 pp. + 12 plates.

Alvariño, A. 1971. Siphonophores of the Pacific, with a review of the world distribution. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 16:1-432.

Anderson, P.A.V.  1977.  Electrically coupled, photosensitive neurons control swimming in a jellyfish.  Science, 197: 186-188.

Arai, M. N. 1988. Interactions of fish and pelagic coelenterates. Canadian Journal of Zoology,  66: 1913-1927.

_____. 1991. Attraction of Aurelia and Aequorea to prey. Hydrobiologia, 216–217: 363–366.

_____. 1997. A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa. Chapman and Hall, London, 316 pp.

_____.
2001. Pelagic cnidarians and eutrophication: a review.  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

Arai, M.N. and A. Brinckman-Voss. 1980. Hydromedusae of British Columbia and Puget Sound. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 204, 192 pp.

_____. 1983. A new species of Amphinema: Amphinema platyhedos n. sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Pandeidae) from the Canadian West Coast. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 61:2179-2182.

Arai, M.N., M.J. Cavey, and B.A. Moore. 2000. Morphology and distribution of a deep-water Narcomedusa (Solmarisidae) from the north-east Pacific. Scientia Marina, supplement 1:55-62. 

Arkett, S.A. and A.N. Spencer. 1986. Neuronal mechanisms of a hydromedusan shadow reflex.  I. Identified reflex components and sequence of events. Journal of Comparative Physiology,  159: 201-213.

Arkhipkin, A. and V. Bizikov. 1996. Possible imitation of jellyfish by the squid paralarvae of the family Gonatidae (Cephalopoda, Oegopsida). Polar Biology, 16(7):531-534.

Aerne, B.L. 1996. The hydrozoan life cycle: a small secreted protein is involved in specification of the polyp stage. Development, Genes and Evolution, 206(5):337-343.

Avian, M. 1986. Temperature influence on in vitro reproduction and development of Pelagia noctiluca (Forskal). Bollettino di Zoologia, 53: 385-391.

_____., L. Rottini Sandrini and F. Stravisi. 1991. The effect of seawater temperature on the swimming activity of Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskal). Bollettino di Zoologia, 58(2): 135-142.

Båmstedt, U.,  M.B. Martinussen  and S. Matsakis. 1994. Trophodynamics of the two scyphozoan jellyfishes, Aurelia aurita and Cyanea capillata, in western Norway. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 51(4):369-382.

Båmstedt, U., H. Ishii and M. B. Martinussen. 1997. Is the scyphomedusa Cyanea capillata (L.) dependent on gelatinous prey for its early development? Sarsia, 82:269-273.

Båmstedt, U., J. H. Fosså, M. B. Martinussen and A. Fosshagen. 1998. Mass occurrence
of the physonect siphonophore Apolemia uvaria (LESUEUR) in Norwegian waters. Sarsia:83:79-85. 

Bamstedt, U.,  J. Lane and M.B. Martinussen 1999.  Bioenergetics of ephyra larvae of the scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to temperature and salinity.  Marine Biology, 135(1):89-98.

Båmstedt, U., B. Wild, and M. Martinussen. 2001. Significance of food type for growth of ephyrae Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa). Marine Biology, 139(4):641-650.

Båmstedt, U., S. Kaartvedt, and M. Youngbluth. 2003. An evaluation of acoustic and video methods to estimate the abundance and vertical distribution of jellyfish. Journal of Plankton Research, 25(11): 1307-1318.

Bieri, R.1959. Dimorphism and size distribution in Velella and Physalia. Nature, London, 184: 1333-1334.

_____. 1977. A morphometric study of Velella (Hydrozoa) from different oceans.  Publications Seto Marine Biological Lab., 24: 59-62.

Bigelow, H.B. 1911. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer “Albatross” 1904-1905. XXII. The siphonophorae. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, 38:171-401, 32 pls.

______ 1912. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer “Albatross” 1904-1905. XXVI. The ctenophores. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, 54:369-404, 2 pls.

Bischoff, A., J. Fleck, and D.K. Hofmann. 1991. Phorbol esters induce metamorphosis in
Cassiopea andromeda
and Cassiopea xamachana (Cnidaria:Scyphozoa). Proceedings of the German Zoological Society, 84:484.


Blanquet, R.S. 1972. Temperature acclimation in the medusa, Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 43B:717-723.

 

Bloom, D.A., J.W.  Burnett and P. Alderslade. 1998.  Partial purification of box jellyfish (Chironex
fleckeri
) nematocyst venom isolated at the beachside. Toxicon, 36(8):1075-1085.

Boero, F. and J. Bouillon. 1989. The life cycles of Octotiara russelli and Stomotoca atra (Cnidaria,
Anthomedusae, Pandeidae). Zoologica Scripta, 18(1):1-7.

Boothroyd, I.K.G., M.K. Etheredge, and J.D. Green. 2002. Spatial distribution, size structure, and prey of Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester in a shallow New Zealand lake . Hydrobiologia, 468(1-3):23-32.

Bouillon, J. 1999. Hydromedusae. Pages 385-465 in D. Boltovsky, editor. South Atlantic zooplankton. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. 

Bouillon, J., F. Boero, F. Cicogna, J.M. Gili and R.G. Hughes. 1992. Non-siphonophoran Hydrozoa: what are we talking about? Scientia Marina, 56:279-284.

Bouillon, J. and T.J. Barnett. 1999. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Hydromedusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 113:1-136.

Brewer, R. H. 1976. Larval settling behavior in Cyanea capillata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Biological Bulletin, 150: 183–199.

_____. 1978. Larval settlement behavior in the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) (Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae). Estuaries, 1: 120–122.

_____. 1984. The influence of the orientation, roughness, and wettability of solid surfaces on the behavior and attachment of planulae of Cyanea (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Biological Bulletin, 166: 11–21.

_____. 1989. The annual pattern of feeding, growth, and sexual reproduction in Cyanea in the Niantic River estuary, Connecticut.  Biological Bulletin, 176: 272-281.

_____ and J. S. Feingold. 1991. The effect of temperature on the benthic stages of Cyanea (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa), and their seasonal distribution in the Niantic River estuary, Connecticut. Journal Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 152: 49–60.

Bieri, R., 1959. Dimorphism and size distribution in Velella and Physalia. Nature, London 184: 1333-1334.

_____. 1970. The food of Porpita and niche separation in three neuston coelenterates. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 17: 305-307.

_____. 1977a. A morphometric study of Velella (Hydrozoa) from different oceans. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 24: 59-62.

_____. 1977b. The ecological significance of seasonal occurrence and growth rate of Velella (Hydrozoa). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 24: 63-76.

Bigelow, H. B., 1911c. The Siphonophorae. Reports of the scientific research expedition to the tropical Pacific. Albatross XXIII. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. 38: 173-401, 132 pls.

Brinckmann, A., 1964b. Observations on the structure and development of the medusa of Velella velella (Linne 1758). Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk naturhistorisk Forening bd. 126: 327-336.

Brierley, A.S., et.al. 2001. Acoustic observations of jellyfish in the Namibian Benguela. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 210:55-66.

Brinkmann-Voss, A. 1970. Anthomedusae/Athecata (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) of the Mediterranean. Part I. Capitata. Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 39: 1–96.

 _____ 1985. Hydroids and medusae of Sarsia apicula (Murbach and Shearer, 1902) and Sarsia princeps (Haeckel, 1879) from British Columbia and Puget Sound with an evaluation of their systematic characters. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63:673-681.

Brodeur, R. D. 1998. In situ observations of the association between juvenile fishes and scyphomedusae in
the Bering Sea.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 163: 11-20.

Brodeur, R.D., C. E. Mills, J. E. Overland, G.E. Walters and J. D. Schumacher. 1999. Evidence for a substantial increase in gelatinous zooplankton in the Bering Sea, with possible links to climate change. Fisheries Oceanography, 8(4):296-306. 

Buecher, E, C. Sparks, A. Brierley, H. Boyer and M. Gibbons. 2003. Biometry and size distribution of Chrysaora hysoscella (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) and Aequorea aequorea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) off Namibia with some notes on their parasite Hyperia medusarum.  Journal of Plankton Research, 23(10):1073-1080.

Bullock, T. H. 1943. Neuromuscular facilitation in scyphomedusae. Journal Cell. Comparitive Physiology, 22: 251–272.

Burd, B.J. and R. E. Thomson. 2000.  Distribution and relative importance of jellyfish in a region of hydrothermal venting.  Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research (47)9:1703-1721.

Burke, W.D. 1975. Pelagic Cnidaria of Mississippi Sound and adjacent waters. Gulf Research Reports, 5:23-38.  

Burnett, J.W. 2001. Medical aspects of jellyfish envenomation: parthenogenesis, case reporting and therapy. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

Burnett, J.W., et al. 1998. Autonomic neurotoxicity of jellyfish and marine animal venoms.  Clinical
Autonomic Research, 8(2):125-130.

Calder, D.R. 1971. Hydroids and hydromedusae of the southern Chesapeake Bay. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Special Paper in Marine Science 1, Gloucester Point.

_____. 1971. Nematocysts of polyps of Aurelia, Chrysaora and Cyanea and their utility in identification.  Transactions of the American Microscope Society,  90: 269-274.

____. 1974a. Nematocysts of the coronate scyphomedusa, Linuche unguiculata, with a brief reexamination of scyphozoan nematocyst classification. Chesapeake Science, 15: 170-173.

_____. 1974b. Strobilation of the sea nettle, Chrysaora quinquecirrha, under field conditions. Biological Bulletin, 146: 326–334.

Cargo, D. G. 1975. Comments on the laboratory culture of scyphozoa. Pp. 145–154 in Culture of Marine Invertebrate Animals; Proceedings, W. L. Smith and M. H. Chanley, eds. Plenum Press, New York.

_____ and L.P. Schultz. 1967. Further observations on the biology of the sea nettle and jellyfishes in Chesapeake Bay. Chesapeake Science, 8:209-220.

_____ and G.E. Rabenold. 1980. Observations on the asexual reproduction activities of the sessile stages of the sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Estuaries, 3:20-27.

Caughlan, D. 1984. The captive husbandry of Aurelia aurita. Drum and Croaker, 21(1): 46-49.

Chapman, D.M. 1999. Microanatomy of the bell rim of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77:34-46.

_____. 2001. Development of the tentacles and food groove in the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79:623-632.

Chen Jiekang and D. Gengwu. 1983. Effect of temperature on the strobilation of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculenta Kishinouye – Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae). Acta Zoologica Sinica, 29(3):195-206 [In
Chinese, with English abstract]. 

Condon, R.H., M.B. Decker and J.E. Purcell. 2001. Effects of low oxygen on survival and asexual reproduction of scyphozoan polyps (Chrysaora quinquecirrha).  Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments
in Hydrobiology, 155):89-95.

Cones, H.N. Jr. 1969. Strobilation of Chrysaora quinquecirrha polyps in the laboratory. Virginia Journal of Science, 20:16-18.

Conklin, E.G. 1908. The habits and early development of Linerges mercurius. Carnegie Institution of Washington, 103:155-170.

_____. 1909. Two peculiar actinian larvae from Tortugas  Florida. Carnegie Institution of Washington, 103:171-186.

Cornelius, P.F.S. 1982. Hydroids and medusae of the family Campanulariidae recorded from the eastern North Atlantic, with a world synopsis of genera. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Zoology, 42:37-148.  

Costello, J.H. and S.P. Colin. 1994. Morphology, fluid motion and predation by the scyphomedusae Aurelia aurita. Marine Biology, 121:327-334.  

_____. 1995. Flow and feeding by swimming scyphomedusae. Marine Biology, 124:399-406.

Currie, B. and Y. K. Wood. 1995. Identification of Chironex fleckeri envenomation by nematocyst recovery from skin.  Medical Journal of Australia, 162: 478-480.

Custance, D. R. N. 1964. Light as an inhibitor of strobilation in Aurelia aurita. Nature, 204:1219–1220.

_____. 1966. The effect of a sudden rise in temperature on strobilae of Aurelia aurita. Experientia, 22:588- 589.

D’Ambra, I., J.H. Costello and F. Bentivegna. 2001. Flow and prey capture by the scyphomedusa Phyllorhiza punctatq von Lendenfeld, 1884. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9. 

Dawson, M. N. 2000. Variegated mesocosms as alternatives to shore-based planktonkreisels: notes on the husbandry of jellyfish from marine lakes. Journal of Plankton Research, 22:1673–1682.

_____. 2003. Macro-morphological variation among cryptic species of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Marine Biology, 143(2):369-379.

_____. 2004. Some implications of molecular phylogenetics for understanding biodiversity in jellyfishes, with emphasis on Scyphozoa. Hydrobiologia, 530(1):249-260. 

Dawson, M.N. and L.E. Martin. 2001. Geographic variation and ecological adaptation in Aurelia (Scyphozoa,
Semaeostomeae): some implications from molecular phylogenetics. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):259-273. 

Dawson, M.N., L.E. Martin and L.K. Penland. 2001. Jellyfish swarms, tourists, and the Christ-child. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9.

Delap, M. J. 1907. Notes on the rearing, in an aquarium, of Aurelia aurita, L. and Pelagia perla (Slabber). Report on the Sea and Inland Fisheries of Ireland for 1905, Part II. Scientific Investigations: 160-164 + 2 plates.

Dillon, T.M. 1977. Effects of acute change in temperature and salinity on pulsation rates in ephyrae of the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita. Marine Biology, 42:31-35.

Eaken, R.M. and J.A. Westfall. 1962.  Fine structure of photoreceptors in the hydromedusan, Polyorchis penicillatus. PNAS, 48: 826-833.

Eckelbarger, K.J. and R.J. Larson. 1993. Ultrastructural study of the ovary of the sessile scyphozoan, Haliclystus octoradiatus (Cnidaria: Stauromedusae).  Journal of Morphology, 218:225-236.

Edwards, C., 1966. Velella velella (L.): The distribution of its dimorphic forms in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean, with comments on its nature and affinities. In Barnes, H. (ed.), Some contemporary studies in marine science. George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London: 283-296.

_____. 1968. Water movements and the distribution of hydromedusae in British and
adjacent waters. Sarsia, 34:331-346.

Elliott, J.K. and W. C. Leggett. 1997. Influence of temperature on size-dependent predation by a fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and a jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) on larval capelin (Mallotus villosus). Canadian
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 54:2759-2766.

Fautin, D. 2002. Reproduction in Cnidaria. Canadian Journal of  Zoology, 80: 1735-1754.

Fields, W. G. and G. O. Mackie, 1971. Evolution of the Chondrophora: evidence from behavioural studies on
Velella. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada, 28: 1595-1602.

Fitt, W.K. and D.K. Hofmann. 1985. Chemical induction of settlement and metamorphosis of planulae and buds of the reef-dwelling coelenterate Cassiopea andromeda. Proc. Fifth International Coral Reef Symposium, 5:239-244.

Fitt, W.K., D.K. Hofmann, M. Wolk, and M. Rahat. 1987.  Requirement of exogenous inducers for the development of axenic larvae and buds of Cassiopea andromedaMarine Biology, 94:415-422.

Fitt, W.K. and  K. Costley.  1998. The role of temperature in survival of the polyp stage of the tropical
rhizostome jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 222(1-2):79-91.

Fleck, J. and D.K. Hofmann. 1990.  The efficiency of metamorphosis inducing oligopeptides in Cassiopea
species (Cnidaria:Scyphozoa) depends on both primary structure and amino and carboxiterminal substituents. Proceedings German Zoological Society, 83:452-453.

_____. 1995.  In vivo binding of a biologically active peptide in vegetative buds of the scyphozoan Cassiopea  andromeda: demonstration of receptor-mediated induction of metamorphosis. 
Marine Biology, 122:447-451.

Fleck, J. and W.K. Fitt. 1999.  Degrading mangrove leaves of Rhizophora mangle Linne provide a natural cue for settlement and metamorphosis of the upside down jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 234(1):83-94.

Fleck, J., W.K. Fitt and M.G. Hahn.  1999.  A proline-rich peptide originating from decomposing mangrove leaves is one natural metamorphic cue of the tropical jellyfish Cassiopeia xamachana. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 183(115-124).

Foerster, R.E. 1923. The Hydromedusae of the west coast of North America, with special reference to those of the Vancouver Island Region. Contributions to Canadian Biology (New Series), 1:219-277, 5 pls.

Fosså, J.H. 1992. Mass occurrence of Periphylla periphylla (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) in a Norwegian fjord. Sarsia, 77:237-251.

Francis, L., 1985. Design of a small cantilevered sheet: the sail of Velella velella. Pacific Science, 3: 1-15.

_____. 1991. Sailing downwind: aerodynamic performance of the Velella sail.  Journal of Experimental Biology, 158:117-132.

Frandsen, K.T. and H.U. Riisgaard. 1997.  Size dependent respiration and growth of jellyfish, Aurelia
aurita. 
Sarsia, 82(4):307-312.

Freeman, G. and E.B. Ridgway. 1990. Cellular and intracellular pathways mediating the metamorphic stimulus in hydrozoan planulae. Roux’s Archives Developmental Biology 199: 63–79.

Fukuda, Y. and T. Naganuma. 2001. Potential dietary effects on the fatty acid composition of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Marine Biology, 138(5):1029-1035.

Gasca, R. 1999. Siphonophores (Cnidaria) and summer mesoscale features in the Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science, 65:75-89.

Gatz, A.J., V.S. Kennedy and J.A. Mihursky. 1973. Effects of temperature on activity and mortality of the scyphozoan medusa, Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Chesapeake Science, 14(3):171-180.

Gershwin, L. 2001. Systematics and biogeography of the jellyfish Aurelia labiata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Biological Bulletin, 201(1):104- .

_____. 2003. Scyphozoa and cubozoa of Guam. Micronesia, 35-36:156-158.

_____ and M.S. Schaadt. 1995. Strobilation induction in cold-water Aurelia aurita at the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium. Drum and Croaker, 26:4-8.

Gilchrist, F. C. 1937. Rearing of the scyphistoma of Aurelia in the laboratory. Culture methods of
invertebrate animals. P.S.G. e. alia. Ithaca: 143.

_____. 1937. Budding and locomotion in the scyphistomas of Aurelia. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole), 72: 99-124, figs. 1-9.

Gili, J.M., J. Bouillon, F. Pages, A. Palanques, P. Puig, and S. Heussner. 1998. Origin and biogeography of the deep-water Mediterranean Hydromedusae including the description of two new species collected in submarine canyons of northwestern Mediterranean. Scientia Marina, 62:113-134.

Gili, J.M., et al. 2000.  A multidisciplinary approach to the understanding of hydromedusan populations inhabiting Mediterranean submarine canyons. Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research, 47(8):1513-1533. 

Graham, W.M. 2001. Numerical increases and distributional shifts of Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor) and Aurelia aurita (Linne) (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Hydrobiologia 451 (Developments in Hydrobiology, 155):1-9.

Graham, W.M., D.L. Martin, D.L. Felder, V.L. Asper, and H.M. Perry. 2003. Ecological and economic implications of a tropical jellyfish invader in the Gulf of Mexico. Biological Invasions, 5(1-2):53-69.

Greenberg, N., R.L. Garthwaite, and D.C. Potts. 1996. Allozyme and morphological evidence for a newly introduced species of Aurelia in San Francisco Bay, California. Marine Biology, 125:401-410.

Grigoriev, et. al. 1996. A cardiac-like sodium current in motor neurons of a jellyfish. Journal of
Neurophysiology,  76:2240-2249.

Groat, C. S., C. R. Thomas, and K. Schurr. 1980. Improved culture of Aurelia aurita scyphistomae for bioassay and research. Ohio Journal of Science, 80:83–87.

Gutschick, R. C. and J. Rodriguez, 1990. By-the-wind sailors from a late Devonian foreshore environment in western Montana. Journal of Paleontology, 64: 31-39.

Gwilliam, G.F. 1956. Studies on West Coast Stauromedusae. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 

Haddock, S. H. D., T. J. Rivers, and B. H. Robison. 2001. Can coelenterates make coelenterazine? Dietary requirements for luciferin in cnidarian bioluminescence. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences USA, 98:11148–11151.

Hagadorn, J. W., R.H. Dott, and D. Damrow. 2002. Stranded on a late Cambrian shoreline: Medusae from central Wisconsin. Geology, 30(2):147-150.

Hamada, T. 1977. Medusae and their conditions to be fossilized. Fossils, 27:61-75.

Hamner, W. M. and D. Schneider. 1986. Regularly spaced rows of medusae in the Bering Sea: Role of Langmuir circulation. Limnology and Oceanography, 31:171–177.

Hand, C. 1954. Three Pacific species of “Lar” (including a new species), their hosts, medusae, and relationships (Coelenterata, Hydrozoa). Pacific Science, 8:51-67.

Hanelt, B., D. van Schyndel, C.M. Adema, L.A. Lewis, and E.S. Loker. 1996. The phylogenetic position of Rhopalura ophiocomae (Orthonectida) based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Marine Biology Evolution, 13:1187-1191. 

Hanson, L.J. 1997.  Capture and digestion of the scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita by Cyanea
capillata
and prey response to predator contact. Journal of Plankton Research, 19(2):195-208.

Hansson, L.J. 1997.  Effect of temperature on growth rate of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) from Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 161:145-153.

Harbison, G. R., K. L. Smith, Jr., and R. H. Backus. 1973. Stygiomedusa fabulosa from the North Atlantic: its taxonomy, with a note on its natural history. Journal of the Marine Biological Association U.K., 53:615-617.

Hayashi, Y. 1998.  Detrimental effect of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita on cooling of sea water in the fish hold of set net fishing boat. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 64: 1046-1052.

Hirano, Y.M. 1986. Species of Stauromedusae from Hokkaido, with notes on their metamorphosis. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series 6 (Zoology), 24:182-201. 

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